Science of Psychology An Appreciative View

ISBN-10: 0073532061

ISBN-13: 9780073532066

Edition: 2nd 2011

Authors: Laura A. King

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The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View by Laura King (University of Missouri at Columbia) is the first text to bring a truly appreciative view of psychology - as a science and for exploring behavior - to introductory students. It is built around the idea that students must study the discipline of psychology as a whole, that the sub-disciplines are intricately connected, and that human behavior is best understood by exploring its functioning state in addition to its potential dysfunctions.
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Book details

List price: $89.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 11/1/2010
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 736
Size: 9.00" wide x 10.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 4.686
Language: English

Laura King did her undergraduate work at Kenyon College, where, an Englishmajor, she declared a second major, in psychology, during the second semester of her junior year. Shecompleted her A.B. in English with high honors and distinction and in psychology with distinctionin 1986. Laura then did graduate work at Michigan State University and the University of California,Davis, receiving her Ph.D. in personality psychology in 1991. Laura began her career at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, moving to the University ofMissouri, Columbia, in 2001, where she is now a professor. In addition to seminars in the developmentof character, social psychology, and personality psychology, she has taught undergraduate lecturecourses in introductory psychology, introduction to personality psychology, and social psychology. AtSMU, she received six different teaching awards, including the "M" award for "sustained excellence"in 1999. At the University of Missouri, she received the Chancellor's Award for Outstanding Researchand Creative Activity in 2004. Her research, which has been funded by the National Institutes for Mental Health, has focusedon a variety of topics relevant to the question of what it is that makes for a good life. She has studiedgoals, life stories, happiness, well-being, and meaning in life. In general, her work reflects an enduringinterest in studying what is good and healthy in people. In 2001, her research accomplishments wererecognized by a Templeton Prize in positive psychology. Laura's research (often in collaborationwith undergraduate and graduate students) has been published in the Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Cognition and Emotion, the Journalof Personality, and other publications . A new paper on the place of regrets in maturity is forthcomingin the American Psychologist. Currently editor-in-chief of the Journal of Research in Personality, Laura has also served asassociate editor of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and the Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, as well as on numerous grant panels. She has edited or co-edited special sectionsof the Journal of Personality and the American Psychologist. In "real life," Laura is an accomplishedcook and enjoys listening to music (mostly jazz vocalists and singer-songwriters), gardening, andchasing Sam, her 3-year-old son.

Preface
What Is Psychology?
Defining Psychology
The Psychological Frame of Mind
Critical Controversy Are Young Americans in the Middle of a Narcissism Epidemic?
Psychology as the Science of All Human Behavior
Psychology in Historical Perspective
Wundt’s Structuralism and James’s Functionalism
Darwin’s Natural Selection
Psychological Inquiry Explore Evolution from Giraffes to Human Beings
Contemporary Approaches to Psychology
The Biological Approach
The Behavioral Approach
The Psychodynamic Approach
The Humanistic Approach
The Cognitive Approach
The Evolutionary Approach
The Sociocultural Approach
Summing Up the Seven Contemporary Approaches
What Psychologists Do
Careers in Psychology
Areas of Specialization
Psychological Inquiry Questions That Psychology Specialists Ask
Intersection Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Is Success Always Sweeter Than Failure?
The Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness
How the Mind Impacts the Body
How the Body Impacts the Mind
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Psychology’s Scientific Method
Psychology’s Scientific Method
Observing Some Phenomenon
Formulating Hypotheses and Predictions
Testing Through Empirical Research
Drawing Conclusions
Evaluating the Theory
Types of Psychological Research
Descriptive Research
Correlational Research
Psychological Inquiry Miserable but Helpful?
Experimental Research
Intersection Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology: Is High Self-Esteem Such a Good Thing?
Applications of the Three Types of Research
Research Samples and Settings
The Research Sample
The Research Setting
Psychological Inquiry Experimentation in a Natural Setting
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Conducting Ethical Research
Ethics Guidelines
The Place of Values in Psychological Research
Critical Controversy Would Reality TV Pass the Institutional Review Board?
Thinking Critically About Psychological Research
Avoid Overgeneralizing Based on Little Information
Distinguish Between Group Results and Individual Needs
Look for Answers Beyond a Single Study
Avoid Attributing Causes When None Have Been Found
Consider the Source of Psychological Information
The Scientific Method and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Biological Foundations of Behavior
The Nervous System
Characteristics of the Nervous System
Pathways in the Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous System
Neurons
Specialized Cell Structure
The Neural Impulse
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
Neural Networks
Structures of the Brain and Their Functions
How Researchers Study the Brain and Nervous System
How the Brain Is Organized
Psychological Inquiry The Brain in Different Species
The Cerebral Cortex
Critical Controversy Are Human Brains Uniquely Wired to Recognize Faces?
The Cerebral Hemispheres and Split-Brain Research
Intersection Emotion and Neuroscience: Is Your Brain Happy?
Integration of Function in the Brain
The Endocrine System
Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair
The Brain’s Plasticity and Capacity for Repair
Brain Tissue Implants
Genetics and Behavior
Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA
The Study of Genetics
Psychological Inquiry The Jim Twins
Genes and the Environment
Psychology’s Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Sensation and Perception
How We Sense and Perceive the World
The Processes and Purposes of Sensation and Perception
Psychological Inquiry Old Woman or Young Woman?
Sensory Receptors and the Brain
Thresholds
Psychological Inquiry Subliminal Perception: Working Up a Thirst
Signal Detection Theory
Perceiving Sensory Stimuli
Intersection Perception and Social Psychology: Was That a Gun or Car Keys?
Sensory Adaptation
Extrasensory Perception
The Visual System
The Visual Stimulus and the Eye
Visual Processing in the Brain
Color Vision
Perceiving Shape, Depth, Motion, and Constancy
The Auditory System
The Nature of Sound and How We Experience It
Structures and Functions of the Ear
Critical Controversy Are Cochlear Implants a “Cure” for Deafness?
Theories of Hearing
Auditory Processing in the Brain
Localizing Sound
Other Senses
The Skin Senses
The Chemical Senses
The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses
Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
States of Consciousness
The Nature of Consciousness
Defining Consciousness
Consciousness and the Brain
Levels of Awareness
Intersection Consciousness and Developmental Psychology: How Do We Develop a Sense of the Minds of Others?
Sleep and Dreams
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Why Do We Need Sleep?
Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep
Psychological Inquiry Taking a Ride on the Sleep Cycles
Sleep and Disease
Sleep Disorders
Dreams
Psychoactive Drugs
Psychological Inquiry Drug Use by American Teenagers
Uses of Psychoactive Drugs
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
Critical Controversy Should Illicit Psychoactive Drugs Be Legalized for Medical Use?
Hypnosis
The Nature of Hypnosis
Explaining Hypnosis
Uses of Hypnosis
Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation
Mindfulness Meditation
The Meditative State of Mind
Getting Started with Meditation
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Learning
Types of Learning
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Studies
Psychological Inquiry From Acquisition to Extinction (to Spontaneous Recovery)
Classical Conditioning in Humans
Operant Conditioning
Defining Operant Conditioning
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Skinner’s Approach to Operant Conditioning
Shaping
Intersection Behaviorism and Cognitive Neuroscience: If It Feels Good, Is It Rewarding?
Principles of Reinforcement
Psychological Inquiry Schedules of Reinforcement and Different Patterns of Responding
Critical Controversy Will Sparing the Rod Spoil the Child?
Applied Behavior Analysis
Observational Learning
Cognitive Factors in Learning
Purposive Behavior
Insight Learning
Biological, Cultural, and Psychological Factors in Learning
Biological Constraints
Cultural Influences
Psychological Constraints
Learning and Health and Wellness
What Can a Rat Tell Us About Stress?
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Memory
The Nature of Memory
Memory Encoding
Attention
Levels of Processing
Elaboration
Imagery
Memory Storage
Sensory Memory
Short-Term Memory
Psychological Inquiry The Inner Workings of Working Memory
Long-Term Memory
Intersection Memory and Sensation: Why Does Smell Share a Special Relationship with Memory?
Memory Retrieval
Serial Position Effect
Psychological Inquiry Don’t Mess with Mr. In-Between
Retrieval Cues and the Retrieval Task
Special Cases of Retrieval
Critical Controversy Memories: Recovered, Discovered, or False?
Forgetting
Encoding Failure
Retrieval Failure
Study Tips from the Science of Memory Memory and Health and Wellness
Keeping Memory Sharp
Memory and Everyday Life
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Thinking, Intelligence, and Language
The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology
Thinking
Concepts
Problem Solving
Psychological Inquiry Thinking Outside the Box
Reasoning and Decision Making
Thinking Critically and Creatively
Intersection Emotion and Cognition: How Are You Feeling and Thinking Today?
Intelligence
Measuring Intelligence
Psychological Inquiry The Normal Curve
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Extremes of Intelligence
Theories of Multiple Intelligences
Language
The Basic Properties of Language
Language and Cognition
Critical Controversy Does Gender Influence Language?
Biological and Environmental Influences on Language
Language Development over the Life Span
Thinking, Problem Solving, and Health and Wellness
Cognitive Appraisal and Stress
Cognitive Reappraisal
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Human Development
Exploring Human Development
Research Methods in Developmental Psychology
How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development?
Critical Controversy Genes or Superparents: Which Matters More to Kids?
What Is the Developer’s Role in Development?
Are Early or Later Life Experiences More Important in Development?
Child Development
Prenatal Development
Physical Development in Childhood
Cognitive Development in Childhood
Psychological Inquiry Thinking Critically About Object Permanence
Socioemotional Development in Childhood
Intersection Developmental Psychology and Clinical Psychology: Is “Girl Talk” Always a Good Thing?
Adolescence
Physical Development in Adolescence
Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Socioemotional Development in Adolescence: The Emergence of Identity
Psychological Inquiry Looking at Identity Exploration
Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging
Emerging Adulthood
Physical Development in Adulthood
Cognitive Development in Adulthood
Socioemotional Development in Adulthood
Human Development and Health and Wellness
Coping and Adult Development
Life Themes and Life-Span Development
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Motivation and Emotion
Theories of Motivation
Hunger, Obesity, and Eating Disorders
Beyond Hunger: Approaches to Motivation in Everyday Life
Emotion
Motivation, Emotion, and Health and Wellness: The Pursuit of Happiness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Gender and Sexuality
Defining Sex and Gender
Sex and Its Biological Components
Gender
The Role of Genes
Disorders of Sexual Development
Theories of Gender Development
Biological Approaches
Evolutionary Psychology Approaches
Social Cognitive Approaches
Social Role Theory
Evaluating the Theoretical Approaches to Gender
The Psychology of Gender Differences
Infant Sex Differences
Cognitive Differences
Gender Differences in Aggression
Gender Differences in Sexuality
Evaluating the Evidence for Gender
Sexual Orientation
Defining Sexual Orientation
Measuring Sexual Orientation
Occurrence of the Different Sexual Orientations
Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle
Gay and Lesbian Functioning
Individual Adjustment and Well-Being
Relationship Functioning
Gay and Lesbian Families
Sexual Behaviors, Practices, and Attitudes
Sexual Behaviors
Sexual Practices
The Human Sexual Response Pattern
Cognitive and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes
Gender and Sexual Variations and Disorders
Transgender: A Variation of Gender Identity
Variations in Sexual Behavior
Variations, Disorders, and the Meaning of Normality
Gender, Sexuality, and Health and Wellness
Sexual Behavior and Physical Health
Sexual Behavior and Psychological Well-Being
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Personality
Psychodynamic Perspectives
Humanistic Perspectives
Trait Perspectives
Personological and Life Story Perspectives
Social Cognitive Perspectives
Biological Perspectives
Personality Assessment
Personality and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Social Psychology
Social Cognition
Social Behavior
Social Influence
Intergroup Relations
Close Relationships
Social Psychology and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Origins of I/O Psychology
Industrial Psychology
Organizational Psychology
Organizational Culture
I/O Psychology and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Psychological Disorders
Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior
Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Eating Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Schizophrenia
Personality Disorders
Psychological Disorders and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Therapies
Biological Therapies
Psychotherapy
Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment
The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
Therapies and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
Health Psychology
Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
Making Positive Life Changes
Resources for Effective Life Change
Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress
Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as If Your Life Depends upon It
Integrating Psychology and Health and Wellness
Summary
Key Terms
Apply Your Knowledge
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