Anne Anastasi is an American psychologist who has achieved a worldwide reputation as an authority on psychological testing, especially the evaluation and interpretation of intelligence testing, culture-free testing, and the methodological problems of test development. She is noted for her proposed resolution of the long-standing nature-nurture controversy in psychology, stating that they are mutually influencing interactions. She has advanced the development of psychology as a quantitative behavioral science and made highly significant contributions to knowledge about psychological traits and the experiential and environmental influences on development. Anastasi's book Psychological Testing was published in 1954. The fourth edition of the book appeared in 1976. In 1972 Anastasi became the third woman to be elected president of the American Psychological Association. She was honored with the organization's Gold Medal Award in 1984. President Ronald Reagan presented her with the National Medal of Science in 1987 in recognition of her numerous scientific achievements.