Understanding Cryptography A Textbook for Students and Practitioners

ISBN-10: 3642041000

ISBN-13: 9783642041006

Edition: 2010

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Book details

Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Springer London, Limited
Publication date: 10/19/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 372
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

Introduction to Cryptography and Data Security
Overview of Cryptography (and This Book)
Symmetric Cryptography
Basics
Simple Symmetric Encryption: The Substitution Cipher
Cryptanalysis
General Thoughts on Breaking Cryptosystems
How Many Key Bits Are Enough?
Modular Arithmetic and More Historical Ciphers
Modular Arithmetic
Integer Rings
Shift Cipher (or Caesar Cipher)
Affine Cipher
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Stream Ciphers
Introduction
Stream Ciphers vs. Block Ciphers
Encryption and Decryption with Stream Ciphers
Random Numbers and an Unbreakable Stream Cipher
Random Number Generators
The One-Time Pad
Towards Practical Stream Ciphers
Shift Register-Based Stream Ciphers
Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR)
Known-Plaintext Attack Against Single LFSRs
Trivium
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Alternatives
Introduction to DES
Confusion and Diffusion
Overview of the DES Algorithm
Internal Structure of DES
Initial and Final Permutation
The �-Function
Key Schedule
Decryption
Security of DES
Exhaustive Key Search
Analytical Attacks
Implementation in Software and Hardware
DES Alternatives
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the AES Finalist Ciphers
Triple DES (3DES) and DESX
Lightweight Cipher PRESENT
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Introduction
Overview of the AES Algorithm
Some Mathematics: A Brief Introduction to Galois Fields
Existence of Finite Fields
Prime Fields
Extension Fields GF(2m)
Addition and Subtraction in GF(2m)
Multiplication in GF{2m)
Inversion in GF(2m)
Internal Structure of AES
Byte Substitution Layer
Diffusion Layer
Key Addition Layer
Key Schedule
Decryption
Implementation in Software and Hardware
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
More About Block Ciphers
Encryption with Block Ciphers: Modes of Operation
Electronic Codebook Mode (ECB)
Cipher Block Chaining Mode (CBC)
Output Feedback Mode (ORB)
Cipher Feedback Mode (CFB)
Counter Mode (CTR)
Galois Counter Mode (GCM)
Exhaustive Key Search Revisited
Increasing the Security of Block Ciphers
Double Encryption and Meet-in-the-Middle Attack
Triple Encryption
Key Whitening
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Introduction to Public-Key Cryptography
Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Cryptography
Practical Aspects of Public-Key Cryptography
Security Mechanisms
The Remaining Problem: Authenticity of Public Keys
Important Public-Key Algorithms
Key Lengths and Security Levels
Essential Number Theory for Public-Key Algorithms
Euclidean Algorithm
Extended Euclidean Algorithm
Euler's Phi Function
Fermat's Little Theorem and Euler's Theorem
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
The RSA Cryptosystem
Introduction
Encryption and Decryption
Key Generation and Proof of Correctness
Encryption and Decryption: Fast Exponentiation
Speed-up Techniques for RSA
Fast Encryption with Short Public Exponents
Fast Decryption with the Chinese Remainder Theorem
Finding Large Primes
How Common Are Primes?
Primality Tests
RSA in Practice: Padding
Attacks
Implementation in Software and Hardware
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Public-Key Cryptosystems Based on the Discrete Logarithm Problem
Difne-Hellman Key Exchange
Some Algebra
Groups
Cyclic Groups
Subgroups
The Discrete Logarithm Problem
The Discrete Logarithm Problem in Prime Fields
The Generalized Discrete Logarithm Problem
Attacks Against the Discrete Logarithm Problem
Security of the Difne-Hellman Key Exchange
The Elgamal Encryption Scheme
From Difne-Hellman Key Exhange to Elgamal Encryption
The Elgamal Protocol
Computational Aspects
Security
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems
How to Compute with Elliptic Curves
Definition of Elliptic Curves
Group Operations on Elliptic Curves
Building a Discrete Logarithm Problem with Elliptic Curves
Difne-Hellman Key Exchange with Elliptic Curves
Security
Implementation in Software and Hardware
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems256
Digital Signatures
Introduction
Odd Colors for Cars, or: Why Symmetric Cryptography Is Not Sufficient
Principles of Digital Signatures
Security Services
The RSA Signature Scheme
Schoolbook RSA Digital Signature
Computational Aspects
Security
The Elgamal Digital Signature Scheme
Schoolbook Elgamal Digital Signature
Computational Aspects
Security
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
The DSA Algorithm
Computational Aspects
Security
The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
The ECDSA Algorithm
Computational Aspects
Security
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Hash Functions
Motivation: Signing Long Messages
Security Requirements of Hash Functions
Preimage Resistance or One-Wayness
Second Preimage Resistance or Weak Collision Resistance
Collision Resistance and the Birthday Attack
Overview of Hash Algorithms
Dedicated Hash Functions: The MD4 Family
Hash Functions from Block Ciphers
The Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-1
Preprocessing
Hash Computation
Implementation
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Message Authentication Codes (MACs)
Principles of Message Authentication Codes
MACs from Hash Functions: HMAC
MACs from Block Ciphers: CBC-MAC
Galois Counter Message Authentication Code (GMAC)
Discussion and Further Reading
Lessons Learned
Problems
Key Establishment
Introduction
Some Terminology
Key Freshness and Key Derivation
The n2 Key Distribution Problem
Key Establishment Using Symmetric-Key Techniques
Key Establishment with a Key Distribution Center
Kerberos
Remaining Problems with Symmetric-Key Distribution
Key Establishment Using Asymmetric Techniques
Man-in-the-Middle Attack
Certificates
Public-Key Infrastructures (PKI) and CAs
Discussion and Further Reading
Lssons Learned
Problems
References
Index
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