Building Physics - Heat, Air and Moisture Fundamentals and Engineering Methods with Examples and Exercises

ISBN-10: 3433030278
ISBN-13: 9783433030271
Edition: 2nd 2012
List price: $104.95
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Description: Bad experiences with construction quality, the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, complaints about ′sick buildings′, thermal, acoustical, visual and olfactory discomfort, the move towards more sustainability, have all accelerated the development of a  More...

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Book details

List price: $104.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
Publication date: 8/8/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 340
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

Bad experiences with construction quality, the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, complaints about ′sick buildings′, thermal, acoustical, visual and olfactory discomfort, the move towards more sustainability, have all accelerated the development of a field, which until 35 years ago was hardly more than an academic exercise: building physics.Through the application of existing physical knowledge and the combination with information coming from other disciplines, the field helps to understand the physical performance of building parts, buildings and the built environment, and translates it into correct design and construction.This book is the result of thirty years teaching, research and consultancy activity of the author.The book discusses the theory behind the heat and mass transport in and through building components. Steady and non steady state heat conduction, heat convection and thermal radiation are discussed in depth, followed by typical building–related thermal concepts such as reference temperatures, surface film coefficients, the thermal transmissivity, the solar transmissivity, thermal bridging and the periodic thermal properties. Water vapour and water vapour flow and moisture flow in and through building materials and building components is analyzed in depth, mixed up with several engineering concepts which allow a first order analysis of phenomena such as the vapour balance, the mold, mildew and dust mites risk, surface condensation, sorption, capillary suction, rain absorption and drying. In a last section, heat and mass transfer are combined into one overall model staying closest to the real hygrothermal response of building components, as observed in field experiments.The book combines the theory of heat and mass transfer with typical building engineering applications. The line from theory to application is dressed in a correct and clear way. In the theory, oversimplification is avoided.This book is the result of thirty years teaching, research and consultancy activity of the author.

Preface
Introduction
Subject of the book
Building Physics
Definition
Criteria
Comfort
Health
Architecture and materials
Economy
Sustainability
Importance of Building Physics
History of Building Physics
Heat, air and moisture
Building acoustics
Lighting
Thermal comfort and indoor air quality
Building physics and building services
Building physics and construction
What about the Low Countries?
Units and symbols
Literature
Heat Transfer
Overview
Conduction
Conservation of energy
Fourier's laws
First law
Second law
Steady state
What is it?
One dimension: flat assemblies
Two dimensions: cylinder symmetric
Two and three dimensions: thermal bridges
Transient regime
What?
Flat assemblies, periodic boundary conditions
Flat assemblies, random boundary conditions
Two and three dimensions
Convection
Heat exchange at a surface
Convective heat transfer
Convection typology
Driving forces
Flow type
Calculating the convective surface film coefficient
Analytically
Numerically
Dimensional analysis
Values for the convective surface film coefficient
Flat assemblies
Cavities
Pipes
Radiation
What is thermal radiation?
Quantities
Reflection, absorption and transmission
Radiant surfaces or bodies
Black bodies
Characteristics
Radiant exchange between two black bodies: the view factor
Properties of view factors
Calculating view factors
Grey bodies
Characteristics
Radiant exchange between grey bodies
Coloured bodies
Practical formulae
Applications
Surface film coefficients and reference temperatures
Overview
Indoor environment
Outdoor environment
Steady state, one dimension: flat assemblies
Thermal transmittance and interface temperatures
Thermal resistance of a non ventilated, infinite cavity
Solar transmittance
Steady state, cylindrical coordinates: pipes
Steady state, two and three dimensions: thermal bridges
Calculation by the control volume method (CVM)
Practice
Steady state: windows
Steady state: building envelopes
Overview
Average thermal transmittance
Transient, periodic: flat assemblies
Heat balances
Transient, periodic: spaces
Assumptions
Steady state heat balance
Harmonic heat balances
Problems
Literature
Mass Transfer
Generalities
Quantities and definitions
Saturation degrees
Air and moisture transfer
Moisture sources
Air, moisture and durability
Link between mass and energy transfer
Conservation of mass
Air transfer
Overview
Air pressure differences
Wind
Stack effects
Fans
Air permeances
Air transfer in open-porous materials
Conservation of mass
Flow equation
Air pressures
One dimension: flat assemblies
Two and three dimensions
Air flow across permeable layers, apertures, joints, leaks and cavities
Flow equations
Conservation of mass: equivalent hydraulic circuit
Air transfer at building level
Definitions
Thermal stack
Large openings
Conservation of mass
Applications
Combined heat and air transfer
Open-porous materials
Air permeable layers, joints, leaks and cavities
Vapour transfer
Water vapour in the air
Overview
Quantities
Maximum vapour pressure and relative humidity
Changes of state in humid air
Enthalpy of humid air
Measuring air humidity
Applications
Water vapour in open-porous materials
Overview
Sorption isotherm and specific moisture ratio
Physics involved
Impact of salts
Consequences
Vapour transfer in the air
Vapour transfer in materials and assemblies
Flow equation
Conservation of mass
Vapour transfer by 'equivalent' diffusion
Vapour transfer by 'equivalent' diffusion and convection
Surface film coefficients for diffusion
Applications
Diffusion resistance of a cavity
Cavity ventilation
Water vapour balance in a space: surface condensation and drying
Moisture transfer
Overview
Moisture transfer in a pore
Capillarity
Water transfer
Vapour transfer
Moisture transfer
Moisture transfer in materials and assemblies
Transport equations
Conservation of mass
Starting, boundary and contact conditions
Remark
Simplifying moisture transfer
The model
Applications
Problems
Literature
Combined heat-air-moisture transfer
Overview
Material and assembly level
Assumptions
Solution
Conservation laws
Mass
Energy
Flow equations
Heat
Mass, air
Mass, moisture
Equations of state
Enthalpy/temperature, vapour saturation pressure/temperature
Relative humidity/moisture content
Suction/moisture content
Starting, boundary and contact conditions
Starting conditions
Boundary conditions
Contact conditions
Two examples of simplified models
Non hygroscopic, non capillary materials
Hygroscopic materials at low moisture content
Building level
Overview
Balance equations
Vapour
Air
Heat
Closing the loop
Hygric inertia
Generalities
Sorption-active thickness
Zone with one sorption-active surface
Zone with several sorption-active surfaces
Harmonic analysis
Consequences
Steady state
Transient
Problems
Literature
Postscript
Problems and Solutions

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