High Cost of Free Parking

ISBN-10: 193236496X

ISBN-13: 9781932364965

Edition: N/A

Authors: Donald Shoup

List price: $34.95 Buy it from $25.93
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One of APA's most popular and influential books is finally in PAPE, with a new preface from the author on how thinking about parking has changed since this book was first published. In this no-holds-barred treatise, Shoup argues that free parking has contributed to auto dependence, rapid urban sprawl, extravagant energy use, and a host of other problems. Planners mandate free parking to alleviate congestion but end up distorting transportation choices, debasing urban design, damaging the economy, and degrading the environment. Ubiquitous free parking helps explain why our cities sprawl on a scale fit more for cars than for people, and why American motor vehicles now consume one-eighth of the world's total oil production. But it doesn't have to be this way. Shoup proposes new ways for cities to regulate parking - namely, charge fair market prices for curb parking, use the resulting revenue to pay for services in the neighborhoods that generate it, and remove zoning requirements for off-street parking. Such measures, according to the Yale-trained economist and UCLA planning professor, will make parking easier and driving less necessary. Join the swelling ranks of Shoupistas by picking up this book today. You'll never look at a parking spot the same way again.
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Book details

List price: $34.95
Publisher: American Planning Association
Publication date: 7/16/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 808
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.222
Language: English

Donald C. Shoup, AICP, is the chair of the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California at Los Angeles. He holds a doctorate in economics from Yale University. From 1996 to 2001, Shoup directed the Institute of Transportation Studies at UCLA. He is the author of numerous articles on parking, including "Buying Time at the Curb" in The Half-Life of Policy Rationales: How New Technology Affects Old Policy Issues and "Unlimited Access" in the journal Transportation.

Preface: A Progress Report on Parking Reforms
Set the Right Price for Curb Parking
Return Parking Revenue to Pay for Local Public Services
Remove Minimum Parking Requirements
A Quiet Revolution in Parking Policies
The Twenty-First Century Parking Problem
The Car Explosion
The �Commons� Problem
Skewed Travel Choices
Cures That Kill
The Twenty-First Century Parking Solution
Planning for Free Parking
Unnatural Selection
The Genesis of Parking Requirements
Huddled Masses Yearning to Park Free
Planning without Prices
Planning without Theory
First Strategy: Copy Other Cities
Second Strategy: Consult ITE Data
Five Easy Reforms
Conclusion: The Immaculate Conception of Parking Demand
The Pseudoscience of Planning for Parking
Three-Step Process
Circular Logic
Estimating Demand without Prices
Professional Confidence Trick
Planners in Denial
Parochial Policies
Mobility versus Proximity
Systemwide Effects of Parking Requirements
Parking Spaces Required for a Change of Land Use
Quantity versus Quality
Conclusion: An Elaborate Structure with No Foundation
An Analogy: Ancient Astronomy
A Parallel Universe
The Muddle Is the Message
The Twenty-First Century Parking Solution
A Great Planning Disaster
Bundled Parking and the Decision to Drive
Distorted Urban Form
Degraded Urban Design
Higher Housing Costs
Paralysis by Parking Requirements
Limits on Homeownership
Damage to the Urban Economy
Harm to the Central Business District
Harm to Low-Income Families
Price Discrimination
Prices and Preferences
Precedent Coagulates into Tradition
An Analogy: Bloodletting
Conclusion: First, Do No Harm
The Cost of Required Parking Spaces
How Much Does a Parking Space Cost?
Monthly Cost of a Parking Space
External Costs of a Parking Space
Conclusion: The High Cost of Required Parking Spaces
Putting the Cost of Free Parking in Perspective
Total Subsidy for Parking
Capital Cost of the Parking Supply
New Parking Spaces Compared with New Cars
Free Parking Compared with the Cost of Driving to Work
Parking Subsidies Compared with Congestion Tolls
Simple Arithmetic
Conclusion: A Great Planning Disaster
An Allegory: Minimum Telephone Requirements
Public Parking in Lieu of Private Parking
Benefits of In-Lieu Fees
Concerns about In-Lieu Fees
How Do Cities Set the In-Lieu Fees?
Why Pay the Fee rather than Provide the Parking?
The Impact Fees Implicit in Parking Requirements
Conclusion: The High Cost of Parking Requirements
Reduce Demand Rather than Increase Supply
Transit Passes in Lieu of Parking Spaces
Parking Cash Out in Lieu of Parking Spaces
Car Sharing
Policies Appropriate to Their Locations
Conclusion: Offer the Option to Reduce Parking Demand
Cruising for Parking
Cruising through the Twentieth Century
Washington, D.C
New Haven and Waterbury
Jerusalem and Haifa
Cape Town
New York
San Francisco
Cruising without Parking
Conclusion: A Century of Cruising
The Right Price for Curb Parking
Is Curb Parking a Public Good?
Time Limits
The Right Price
External Costs of Curb Parking
Demand-Responsive Prices
Can Prices Manage Curb Parking Demand?
Two Later Observations
Conclusion: Charge the Right Price for Curb Parking
Choosing to Cruise
To Cruise or to Pay
Equilibrium Search Time: An Example
The Wages of Cruising
Rent Seeking
Two Pricing Strategies
A Numerical Example
Is Cruising Rational?
The Role of Information
Conclusion: An Invitation to Cruise
California Cruising
Park-and-Visit Tests in Westwood Village
Cheaper Curb Parking Creates More Cruising
Cruising for a Year
Side Effects of Cruising
Solo Drivers More Likely to Cruise
Market Prices Can Attract More People
Wages of Cruising in Westwood Village
Perception versus Reality
Turning Wasted Time into Public Revenue
Conclusion: The High Cost of Cruising
Cashing in on Curb Parking
Buying Time at the Curb
First Parking Meter
The Technology of Charging for Curb Parking
Not Technology but Politics
Conclusion: Honk if You Support Paid Parking
Turning Small Change into Big Changes
Parking Benefit Districts
A Logical Recipient: Business Improvement Districts
Pasadena: Your Meter Money Makes a Difference
San Diego: Turning Small Change into Big Changes
Conclusion: Cash Registers at the Curb
Taxing Foreigners Living Abroad
A Market in Curb Parking
Residential Parking Benefit Districts
Benefits of Parking Benefit Districts
Conclusion: Changing the Politics of Curb Parking
Let Prices Do the Planning
Space, Time, Money, and Parking
The Optimal Parking Space
Greed versus Sloth
Parking Duration and Vehicle Occupancy
The Invisible Hand
Classic Monocentric Models
Banning Curb Parking
Where Would Jesus Park?
Removing Off-Street Parking Requirements
Conclusion: Prices Can Do the Planning
The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue
Henry George's Proposal
Curb Parking Revenue Is Public Land Rent
Parking Requirements Act Like a Tax on Buildings
What Would Adam Smith Say about Charging for Parking?
Revenue Potential of Curb Parking
Division of Curb Parking Revenue
Similarity to Special Assessments
Property Values
An Analogy: Congestion Pricing
Appropriate Public Claimants
Parking Increment Finance
Opportunity Cost of Curb Parking
Economic Development
Monopoly, Free Parking, and Henry George
Conclusion: The Revenue Is under Our Cars
Unbundled Parking
Parking Costs Unbundled from Housing Costs
Parking Caps or Parking Prices
Effects of Unbundling on VMT and Vehicle Emissions
Objections to Unbundling
Conclusion: The High Cost of Bundled Parking
Time for a Paradigm Shift
Parking Requirements as a Paradigm
Retrofitting America
An Illustration: Advising the Mayor
A New Style of Planning
Changing the Future
Curb Parking as a Commons Problem
Enormous Parking Subsidies
Unintended Consequences
Enclosing the Commons
Public Property, Not Private Property
Commons, Anticommons, and the Liberal Commons
Public Property, but without Open Access
Other Commons Problems
Two Futures
Three Reforms
The Practice of Parking Requirements
Three Steps in Setting a Parking Requirement
662 Land Uses
216 Bases
Convergence to the Golden Rule
Parking Requirements and Regional Culture
Parking Requirements and Parking Technology
What Went Wrong?
Nationwide Transportation Surveys
Drivers Park Free for 99 Percent of All Automobile Trips
Cars Are Parked 95 Percent of the Time
The Language of Parking
The Calculus of Driving, Parking, and Walking
The Price of Time
The Price of Land and the Cost of Parking
Break-Even Land Values
Land Banks
Cost of Complying with Parking Requirements
People, Parking, and Cities
Share of Land in Streets and Parking
People and Land: Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
Converting Traffic Congestion into Cash
Use of the Toll Revenue
Estimates of the Toll Revenue
Income Distribution and Political Support
The Vehicles of Nations
Afterword: Twenty-First Century Parking Reforms
Set the Right Price for Curb Parking
Return Parking Revenue to Pay for Local Public Services
Remove Minimum Parking Requirements
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