Principles of Lake Sedimentology

ISBN-10: 1930665547

ISBN-13: 9781930665545

Edition: 2002

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Book details

Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Blackburn Press, The
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 332
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Prologuep. 1
Lake Types and Sediment Typesp. 5
Lake Classificationsp. 5
Genetic Lake Typesp. 5
Trophic Level Classificationsp. 12
Thermal Lake Typesp. 14
Sediment Classificationsp. 17
Genetic Sediment Typesp. 19
Descriptive Sediment Classificationsp. 22
Lake Type versus Sediment Typep. 24
Methods of Samplingp. 32
General Requirements on Sampling Equipmentp. 32
Types of Sampling Systemp. 37
Number of Samplesp. 39
The Sample Formulap. 40
Sampling in Different Environments--Statistical Aspectsp. 43
Sub-Samplingp. 48
Sediment Trapsp. 53
Physics of Sedimentation in Vesselsp. 53
Geometry of Vesselsp. 56
Practical Aspectsp. 60
Problems with Sediment Trapsp. 61
The Cone Apparatus for in Situ Determination of Sediment Typesp. 62
Methods of Defining Concentrationsp. 65
Sampling of Sediment Pore Waterp. 69
Physical and Chemical Sediment Parametersp. 73
Physical Parametersp. 73
Water Contentp. 73
Loss on Ignition (Organic Content)p. 76
Bulk Densityp. 80
Grain Sizep. 82
Methods of Analysisp. 82
Grain Size Classificationsp. 84
Statistical Definitionsp. 87
Grain Size Interrelationshipsp. 91
Chemical Parametersp. 95
Elemental Compositionp. 95
Organic Carbon Compoundsp. 98
Humic Compoundsp. 98
Other Organic Substancesp. 100
Minerals in Lake Sedimentsp. 101
Carbonatesp. 101
Silicatesp. 104
Ironp. 107
Phosphorusp. 108
Sulfidesp. 112
Heavy Metalsp. 113
Biological Parametersp. 118
Sediment-Living Algaep. 118
Macrophytesp. 121
Benthic Invertebratesp. 122
Important Forms of Benthic Animalsp. 123
Feeding Mechanisms and Food Types Among Insectsp. 127
Distribution of Benthic Fauna Within Lakesp. 127
Benthic Lake Typologiesp. 131
Bacteriap. 133
Functional Classification of Bacteriap. 134
Bacterial Turnover of Important Elementsp. 135
Oxidation and Reduction of Nitrogen Compoundsp. 135
Oxidation and Reduction of Sulfur Compoundsp. 136
Oxidation and Reduction of Ironp. 138
Fermentationp. 138
Methane Formationp. 139
Decomposition of Organic Material--General Conceptsp. 139
Strategies and Methods for Determination of Bacterial Activityp. 143
The Whole-Lake Approachp. 143
Bacterial Activity in Experimental Proceduresp. 143
Parameters Reflecting Total Bacterial Activityp. 145
Factors Reflecting Defined Parts of Bacterial Activityp. 147
Sedimentation in Lakes and Water Dynamicsp. 148
Physics of Sedimentation in Lakesp. 148
Geography of Sedimentation in Lakesp. 156
River-Mouth Areasp. 157
Delta Sedimentationp. 157
River Plume Sedimentationp. 159
The Borderline Between River Action and Wind/Wave Actionp. 164
Open Water Areasp. 170
Temporal Variationsp. 174
Lake Bottom Dynamicsp. 177
Definitionsp. 177
Processes of Resuspensionp. 181
Entrainmentp. 181
Turbidific Sedimentationp. 184
Wind/Wave Influencesp. 188
Topographical Influencesp. 194
Methods to Determine Prevailing Bottom Dynamicsp. 200
Lake-Specific Methodsp. 201
The Energy-Topography Formulap. 201
The Characteristic Water Content Modelp. 202
Site-Specific Methodsp. 204
The ETA-Diagramp. 205
The Cone Apparatusp. 206
Sediment Dynamics and Sediment Agep. 213
Laminated Sedimentsp. 213
Bioturbationp. 218
Introductionp. 218
Patchinessp. 219
Areal Patchinessp. 219
Vertical Patchinessp. 222
Temporal Patchinessp. 222
Species-Specific Patchinessp. 222
Modelling of Bioturbation/Biotransportp. 224
A Dynamic Modelp. 225
An Empirical Modelp. 232
Sediment Age and Age Determinationp. 237
Methods of Age Determinationp. 237
Lead-210p. 241
Cesium-137p. 243
Release of Substances from Lake Sediments--the Example of Phosphorusp. 244
Background and Presuppositionsp. 244
Factors of Importance for Mobilization of Phosphorusp. 246
Fractional Distribution of Particulate Phosphorusp. 246
Redox Conditionsp. 247
pHp. 248
Microbial Mineralizationp. 249
Equilibrium Reactionsp. 250
Transport Mechanismsp. 250
Phosphorus in Sediment Pore Waterp. 250
Diffusionp. 253
Turbulent Mixing/Bottom Dynamicsp. 253
Bioturbationp. 254
Gas Convectionp. 254
A General View of Phosphorus Releasep. 255
Sediments in Aquatic Pollution Control Programmesp. 258
Introductionp. 258
Why Use Sediments?p. 258
How to Use Sedimentsp. 262
Principles of Metal Distribution in Aquatic Systemsp. 263
The Type of Metal and Type of Pollutionp. 264
The "Carrier Particles"p. 265
The Environmental Characteristicsp. 269
Natural Background Levelsp. 271
The Contamination Factorp. 273
Case Study--River Kolbacksanp. 274
The Degree of Contaminationp. 280
Epiloguep. 283
Table for Student's t-Distributionp. 285
Computer Programmes in BASIC for Determination of Biotransport, Time Stratification and Sediment Compactionp. 286
Referencesp. 295
Subject Indexp. 309
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.
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