Oil and Gas Pipelines in Nontechnical Language

ISBN-10: 159370058X
ISBN-13: 9781593700584
Edition: 2006
List price: $102.00 Buy it from $95.63
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Description: Oil & Gas Pipelines in Nontechnical Language examines the processes, techniques, equipment, and facilities used to transport liquids such as refined products, crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids through cross-country pipelines. Topics  More...

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Book details

List price: $102.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: PennWell Corporation
Publication date: 3/15/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 180
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.024
Language: English

Oil & Gas Pipelines in Nontechnical Language examines the processes, techniques, equipment, and facilities used to transport liquids such as refined products, crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids through cross-country pipelines. Topics include the importance of the pipeline infrastructure; planning, designing, constructing, operating, and maintaining pipelines; regulatory requirements; and the challenges for the future. Special emphasis is included on control and leak detection systems as well as emerging technologies and systems to ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Thorough but easy to read, this text is useful for anyone who wants to learn about pipelines, from petroleum industry newcomers and students to personnel in related arenas such as legal, accounting, financial, government, and others. Features and benefits: Concise overviews of the various pipeline functions and operations; Individual coverage of oil, natural gas, and chemical pipeline operations and their differences; Descriptive photos, charts, and tables for easy comprehension.

Thomas O. Miesner, former president of Conoco Pipeline, has spent more than 25 years in the pipeline industry working in engineering, operations, business development, and joint venture management positions. He served on the boards of several pipeline companies, including three years as Chairman of the Board for Explorer Pipeline Company. Active on the API Pipeline General Committee and the Association of Oil Pipelines Executive Committee, Miesner was also Chairman of the Association of Oil Pipelines in 2001 where he was instrumental in establishing a vision for the future as well as strategic initiatives which are still presently being pursued by the industry. He received his BS in Engineering Management from the University of Missouri-Rolla.

Acknowledgments
How Pipelines Differ
Crude Oil Pipelines
Refined Products Pipelines
Natural Gas Pipelines
Pipeline Customers
The First Leg
Creating Nostalgia
Enter Competition
Oily Beginnings
Gaseous Progress
Endeavor and Technology
Disturbed Interests
The Russians
Separate Ways
Expansion
The Great Offshore
Diversity
Shifting Sands
References
How Pipelines Work
The Physics of Fluid Flow
Municipal Water Systems
Friction Losses, Pipe Lengths, and Flow Rates
Splitting flows
Hydraulic Properties of Hydrocarbon Fluids
Measures and dimensions
Density
Viscosity
Pour point
Vapor pressure and evaporation
Pressure
Compressibility
Why gases behave that way
Hydraulics
Basic Flow Principles and Equations
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Bernoulli's equation
Flow characteristics
Friction loss
Elevation loss (or gain)
Flow rates and capacities
Conclusion
Oil Pipeline Operations
Crude Oil Lines-a Brief Review
Refined Products Lines-a Brief Review
Field Operations to Central Control Room
Crude oil receipt and delivery field operations
Refined products receipt and delivery field operations
Central Control Room Operations
Planning and scheduling operations
The scheduler's role
The controller's role
Hydraulic concepts-practical applications in mainline operations
The Control Room
Routine operations
Abnormal operations
Operator Training
References
Natural Gas Pipeline Operations
Natural Gas Lines-a Brief Review
Gathering lines
Gas processing plants
Receipts from LNG facilities
Pipeline hubs
From Field Operations to Central Control Room Operations
Natural gas field operations
Natural gas delivery operations
Central Control Rooms
Planning and scheduling operations
Monitoring and controlling the pipeline
Hydraulic concepts-optimizing line operation
Routine operations
Quality control
Abnormal operations
Operator Training
References
Petrochemical and LPG Pipeline Operations
Definitions
Product Characteristics
C4 products
C3 products
C2 products
Compressibility
Leak Detection
Measurement
Quality
Commissioning and Decommissioning
Freezing temperatures
Storage
Hydraulics
Addendum-Supercritical Fluids
Offshore Pipelines
Line Design
Installing Subsea Pipelines
The boon and bane of buoyancy
Laying pipe
S-lay
J-lay
Reel barge
Tow-in
Bottom Conditions
Risers
Attached risers
Pull tubes
Steel catenary riser
Top-tensioned risers
Riser tower
Flexible risers
ROVs
SCADA, Controls, and Leak Detection
SCADA
Design and Control
Human versus computer decision making
Local or central control
Manual or automated
Communications
Human machine interface
Real-time operating data
Configuration tool
Application interface
Historic database
Amount of data to gather
Update frequency
Update process
Corrupted data
Indicators, alarms, and alarm filtering
SCADA performance
Data sharing
Reports and logs
Security
SCADA in summary
Local SCADA
Leak Detection
Leaks and releases
Leak detection systems
Leak detection methods
Internal systems
External systems
Conclusion
Maintenance
What Causes Releases?
Equipment damage
Corrosion
Mechanical failures
Natural hazards
Other causes of failures
How to Prevent Damage
Equipment damage
Corrosion
Mechanical failures
Natural hazards
Other causes of failure
Finding Potential Problems before They Become Failures
Internal inspection devices
Hydrostatic testing
Electrical surveys
Direct assessment
Risk and Pipeline Safety
Consequences
Probabilities
Framework for considering risk
Data
Integrity Management Plan
Repairs
Replacing the pipe
Reinforcing the pipe
Grinding to reduce stress concentrations
Deposited weld metal
Coating repairs
Other Maintenance Activities
Line lowering
ROW maintenance
Cathodic maintenance
Maintenance pigging
References
Investment Decisions
Why Are They Built?
Who Decides to Build?
How Is the Decision Made?
Demand and supply
Economics
Ownership Changes
Master Limited Partnerships
Determining the Purchase and Sales Price
Economic value
Comparable sales
Highest and best use
Reconstruction cost new
Book value
Major Components and How They Work
Pipe
Manufacturing methods
Properties of pipe
Nonferrous pipe
Coatings
Fusion bond epoxy
Coal tar
Plastics
Tapes
Shrink sleeves
Concrete coating
Fittings and Flanges
Fittings
Flanges
Valves
Gate valves
Ball valves
Plug valves
Check valves
Globe valves
Pressure relief valves
Actuators
Pumps and Compressors
Positive displacement pumps and compressors
Centrifugal compressors and pumps
Prime Movers
Engines
Electric motors
Turbines
Variable Speed Devices
Mechanical VSDs
Electrical variable frequency drives
Meters
Positive displacement meters
Turbine meters
Orifice meters
Ultrasonic meters
Coriolis meters
Provers
Pipe provers
Master meters
Other Components
References
Engineering and Design
Safety Considerations
Route Selection
Line Size, Wall Thickness, and Looping
Engineering aspects of friction loss
Systems Curves
Fittings, Flanges, and Valves
Wall Thickness and Grade of Pipe
Looping
Pump, Compressor, and Prime Mover Selection
Pump selection
Compressor selection
Prime mover selection
Flow and Pressure Control
Natural gas
Oil
Number of Stations
Station Location
Storage
Location of oil storage
Number and size of oil tanks
Location of natural gas storage
Natural gas storage management
Operating storage
Seasonal storage
Station Design and Layout
Compressor and pump stations
Delivery stations
Storage fields and tank farms
Ancillary station equipment
Additional Design Considerations
Crossings
Block valves
Conclusion
Construction
Permitting
Contracting and Procurement
ROW and Land Acquisition
Inspection
Staking the Line
Pipeline Construction Spreads
Preparing the ROW
Stringing
Welding
Weld Inspection
Trenching
Lowering In
Backfilling
Bends, Crossings, and Tie-Ins
Bends
Crossings
Tie-ins
Quality Control
Cleaning and Sizing
Hydrostatic Testing
Commissioning
Station Construction
Cleanup and Restoration
Handoff for Operations
Documentation
Satisfying Stakeholders
Introduction
Stakeholders
Owners
Customers
Landowners and neighbors
Governments
Nongovernmental organizations
Interested citizens
Industry
Suppliers and contractors
Competitors
Employees
Media
Balancing Needs and Wants
Safety
Supply
Other wants
Conclusion
References
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Index

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