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Preface | |

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Introduction | |

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Temperature, Work, and Heat | |

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Thermal Equilibrium and the Zero'th Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Empirical Temperature | |

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Work and Heat; the First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Reversible and Irreversible Processes | |

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Magnetic Work | |

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Enthalpy | |

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Heat Capacity | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Macrostates and Microstates | |

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Macrosystems, Microsystems, and Multiplicity | |

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The Spin 1/2 Magnet | |

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Multiplicity and Disorder | |

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Envoi: Multiplicity in Other Systems | |

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Problems | |

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Entropy, Free Energy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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The Condition for Thermal Equilibrium | |

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Entropy and the Second Law | |

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Absolute Temperature | |

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Negative Temperature | |

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Entropy and Heat: Isentropic and Isothermal Processes | |

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Entropy of Mixing | |

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Free Energy | |

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The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation | |

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Free Enthalpy (Gibbs Free Energy) | |

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Adiabatic Processes | |

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Irreversible Adiathermal Processes | |

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The Third Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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The Canonical Distribution: The Boltzmann Factor and the Partition Function | |

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A System in Contact with a Heat Bath | |

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The Boltzmann Factor and the Canonical Distribution | |

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The Partition Function | |

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The Many-Particle Partition Function | |

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Examples of the Use of the Canonical Distribution | |

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Fluctuations | |

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Obtaining the Entropy and Free Energy from the Partition Function | |

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Scaling of Energy and Temperature | |

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Free Energy and Equilibrium | |

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Thermally Activated Processes: Arrhenius' Law | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Continuous Energy Levels, the Density of States, and Equipartition | |

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Density of States and the Partition Function for a Continuum | |

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Density of States for a Single Free Particle: One Dimension | |

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Density of States for a Single Particle: Two and Three Dimensions | |

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Dimensional Derivation of the Density of States | |

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Effect of Intermolecular Collisions | |

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Energy and Partition Function of a Free Particle in Three Dimensions | |

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Other Uses of the Density of States; Debye's Theory of the Heat Capacity of Solids | |

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Equipartition | |

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Brownian Motion | |

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Electrical (Johnson) Noise | |

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The Classical Partition Function: Orientational Multiplicity | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Systems with a Variable Number of Particles: The Chemical Potential | |

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A System in Contact with a Particle Reservoir: Diffusive Equilibrium | |

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The Chemical Potential | |

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Free Enthalpy of a Multicomponent System | |

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Electrochemical Potential | |

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Probability of Occupancy: The Grand Partition Function | |

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Chemical Potential and Free Energy | |

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Fluctuations in Occupancy | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Perfect Gases | |

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Distribution Functions | |

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Fermions; The Fermi-Dirac Distribution | |

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Bosons; the Bose-Einstein Distribution | |

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The Ideal Monatomic Gas and the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Ideal Gases and Solutions | |

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Ideal Monatomic Gases: Introduction | |

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The Maxwell Distribution: Velocity Distribution in an Ideal Gas | |

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Free Energy and Entropy of an Ideal Monatomic Gas; the Sackur-Tetrode Equation | |

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Entropy of Mixing of Ideal Gases; Gibbs' Paradox | |

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Particles with Internal Structure; Ideal Polyatomic Gases | |

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Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas at Constant Pressure | |

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Isentropic Expansion of an Ideal Gas | |

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The Ideal Gas as a Spring; the Velocity of Sound | |

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Ideal Solutions and Osmotic Pressure | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Black Body Radiation and the Photon Gas | |

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Field-Carrying Bosons; the Photon | |

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Thermodynamics of Radiation; Cavity Radiation | |

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Kirchhoff's Radiation Law and the Brightness Theorem | |

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The Stefan-Boltzmann Law | |

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Isentropic Expansion; the Cosmic Microwave Background | |

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Radiative Transfer | |

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Photon Statistics and the Planck Radiation Law | |

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The Greenhouse Effect | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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The Perfect Bose Gas: Bose-Einstein Condensation | |

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Conserved Bosons | |

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Bose-Einstein Condensation | |

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Experimental Observation of Bose-Einstein Condensation in Perfect Gases | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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The Perfect Fermi Gas | |

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Electrons in Metals | |

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Heat Capacity of a Degenerate Electron Gas | |

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Internal Energy at 0 K; Fermi Pressure | |

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Fermi Gases at Nonzero Temperature; the Changeover to the Ideal Gas | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors | |

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Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors | |

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Density of States Near a Band Edge | |

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Intrinsic Conduction in a Pure Semiconductor | |

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Impurities in Semiconductors; Extrinsic Conduction | |

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The p - n Junction | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Phase Transitions | |

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First Order Transitions | |

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Superheating and Supercooling | |

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Properties of the Coexistence Curve; the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation | |

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Second Order Transitions: The Ferromagnet; Order-Disorder Transitions | |

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The van der Waals Model of an Imperfect Gas | |

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Landau's Theory of Phase Transitions | |

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Envoi; Critical Fluctuations and the Failure of Mean Field Theory | |

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Problems | |

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Heat Engines | |

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The Carnot Engine | |

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The Steam Engine | |

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Internal Combustion Engines: the Otto and Diesel Cycles | |

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Refrigerators and Heat Pumps: The Vapor-Compression Cycle | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Transport Processes | |

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Quasi-Ideal Gases | |

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Scattering Processes; Mean Free Path | |

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Mobility and Diffusivity; the Einstein Relation | |

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General Treatment of Transport Processes in Gases | |

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Thermal Conductivity | |

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Viscosity | |

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Effect of Density on Transport Coefficients; the Low Density (Knudsen) Regime | |

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The Diffusion Equation | |

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Envoi | |

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Problems | |

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Expansion in Series | |

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The Use of Infinite Series in Physics | |

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The Taylor-McLaurin and Binomial Series | |

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Expansion Around an Extremum | |

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A More Complicated Example | |

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Functions of More Than One Variable | |

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Review of Quantized States | |

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Introduction: Wave-Particle Duality and the Dispersion Relation for a Particle | |

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Particle in a Box | |

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Electron Spin in a Magnetic Field | |

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The Harmonic Oscillator | |

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The Quantum Rotator | |

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The Hydrogen-Like Atom | |

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Proof That the Zero'th Law Implies the Existence of Temperature | |

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Some Results in Probability Theory | |

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Derivation of the Binomial Coefficients c(N,r) | |

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Stirling's Approximation to the Factorial | |

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Mean Values (Averages) over a Distribution | |

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Binomial Distribution | |

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Gaussian Distribution | |

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Poisson Distribution | |

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Derivation of the Multiplicity Function for a System of Identical Oscillators | |

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Random Walk Program | |

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Differentials, Partial Derivatives, and the Maxwell Relations | |

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Differentials | |

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Triple Product of Partial Derivatives | |

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Relation Between Cross Derivatives | |

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Exact and Inexact Differentials | |

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Maxwell Relations | |

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Standing Wave Solutions of the Wave Equation | |

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The Equipartition Theorem | |

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Some Results in the Kinetic Theory of Gases | |

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Introduction | |

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Particle Flux in a Perfect Gas | |

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Pressure Exerted by a Gas | |

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Glossary | |

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List of Symbols | |

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Physical Constants | |

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Bibliography | |

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Index | |