Health Policy Issues An Economic Perspective

ISBN-10: 1567934188
ISBN-13: 9781567934182
Edition: 5th 2011
List price: $95.00 Buy it from $8.40
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Description: This book will help your students understand the economics underlying the issues and politics of healthcare. It presents 36 short, topical chapters that focus on the financing and delivery of medical services. The fifth edition includes updated  More...

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Book details

List price: $95.00
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Health Administration Press
Publication date: 8/1/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 500
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.772
Language: English

This book will help your students understand the economics underlying the issues and politics of healthcare. It presents 36 short, topical chapters that focus on the financing and delivery of medical services. The fifth edition includes updated chapters, figures, and tables as well as a new chapter on comparative effectiveness research and a completely revised chapter on the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA). A summary of the ACA is included in the appendix. By reading this book, your students can begin to think critically and clearly about issues involving physicians, nurses, health insurance, Medicare and Medicaid, competition, the increase of medical expenditures, prescription drugs and the pharmaceutical industry, and more.

List of Exhibits
Preface
The Rise of Medical Expenditures
Before Medicare and Medicaid
The Increasing Role of Government
Changing Patient and Provider Incentives
Government Response to Rising Costs
A Look Ahead
How Much Should We Spend on Medical Care?
Consumer Sovereignty
Economic Efficiency
Government and Employer Concerns over Rising Medical Expenditures
Approaches to Limiting Increases in Medical Expenditures
Do More Medical Expenditures Produce Better Health?
Medical Services Versus Health
Health Production Function
Improving Health Status Cost Effectively
Relationship of Medical Care to Health over Time
In Whose Interest Does the Physician Act?
The Physician as a Perfect Agent for the Patient
Supplier-Induced Demand
Increase in Physician Supply
Insurers' Response to Demand Inducement
HMOs
Informed Purchasers
Rationing Medical Services
Government Rationing
Rationing by Ability to Pay
Decision Making by Consumers of Medical Services
Marginal Benefit Curve
Price Sensitivity
How Much Health Insurance Should Everyone Have?
Definitions of Insurance Terms
Insurance-Purchase Decision Making
Tax-Free, Employer-Paid Health Insurance
Why Are Those Who Most Need Health Insurance Least Able to Buy It?
Medical Loss Ratios
How Health Insurance Markets Work
Additional Legislative Changes Affecting the Health Insurance Market
Medicare
The Current State of Medicare
(HI)
(SMI)
Medicare Advantage Plans
Outpatient Prescription Drugs
Medigap Supplementary insurance
Concerns About the Current Medicare System
The Impending Bankruptcy of Medicare
Proposals for Medicare Reform
Politics of Medicare Reform
Medicaid
An Illustration of Medicaid Eligibility
State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)
Medicaid Beneficiaries and Medicaid Expenditures
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA)
Medicaid Policy Issues
Medicaid Managed Care
Reforming Medicaid
How Does Medicare Pay Physicians?
Previous Medicare Physician Payment System
Reasons for Adopting the New Payment System
Components of the New Payment System
Effects of Medicare's Payment System
Is There an Impending Shortage of Physicians?
Definitions of a Physician Shortage or Surplus
Consequences of an Imbalance in the Supply and Demand for Physicians
Economic Evidence on Trends in Physician Demand and Supply
Longer-Term Outlook for Physicians
The Changing Practice of Medicine
Types of Medical Groups
Changes in the Size of Medical Groups
Reversal of Fortunes of Large Multispecialty Groups
Outlook for Medical Group Practices
Recurrent Malpractice Crises
Explanations for the Rise in Malpractice Premiums
Objectives of the Malpractice System
Proposed Changes to the Malpractice System
Enterprise Liability
The Effects of Various Tort Reforms
Do Nonprofit Hospitals Behave Differently than For-Profit Hospitals?
Why Are Hospitals Predominately Nonprofit?
Performance of Nonprofit and For-Profit Hospitals
The Question of Tax-Exempt Status
Competition Among Hospitals: Does It Raise or Lower Costs?
Origins of Non-price Competition
Transition to Price Competition
Price Competition in Theory
Price Competition in Practice
The Future Role of Hospitals
From Medicare to the Present
The Hospital Outlook
Hospital Revenues
Potential Hospital Threats
Alternative Hospital Scenarios
Cost Shifting
Setting Prices to Maximize Profits
Origins of Claims of Cost Shifting
Price Discrimination
Conditions Under Which Cost Shifting Can Occur
The Direction of Causality
Can Price Controls Limit Medical Expenditure Increases?
Effect of Price Controls in Theory
Effect of Price Controls in Practice
Global Budgets
The Evolution of Managed Care
Why Managed Care Came About
What Is Managed Care?
Types of Managed Care Plans
How Has Managed Care Performed?
One-Time Versus Continual Cost Savings
The Change in Managed Care
Recent Developments in Managed Care
Consumer-Driven Health Care
Accountable Care Organizations
Has Competition Been Tried-and Has It Failed-to Improve the US Healthcare System?
Criteria for Judging Performance of a Country's Medical Sector
How Medical Markets Differ from Competitive Markets
Demand-Side Market Failures
Supply-Side Market Failures
How Can Medical Markets Be More Competitive?
What Might Competitive Medical Markets Look Like?
Are the Poor Disadvantaged in a Competitive Market?
Comparative Effectiveness Research
CER and the Role of Government
Concerns over How CER Will Be Used
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
US Competitiveness and Rising Health Costs
Who Pays for Higher Employee Medical Costs?
Who Pays for Retiree Medical Costs?
Possible Adverse Effects of Rising Medical Costs on the US Economy
Why Is Getting into Medical School So Difficult?
The Market for Medical Education in Theory
The Market for Medical Education in Practice
Accreditation for Medical Schools
Recommended Changes
The Shortage of Nurses
Measuring Nursing Shortages
Nursing Shortages in Theory
Nursing Shortages in Practice
Federal Subsidies to Nursing Schools and Students
The High Price of Prescription Drugs
Reasons for the Increase in Pharmaceutical Expenditures
Pricing Practices of US Pharmaceutical Companies
Ensuring Safety and Efficacy of New Drugs: Too Much of a Good Thing?
History of Regulation of Prescription Drugs
FDA's Stringent Guidelines for Safety and Efficacy
Why Are Prescription Drugs Less Expensive Overseas?
Accuracy of Studies on International Variations in Drug Prices
Why Prescription Drugs Are Expected to Be Priced Lower Overseas
Public Policy Issues
The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Public Policy Dilemma
Public Policy Dilemma
Structure of the Pharmaceutical Industry
Development of New Drugs by the US Pharmaceutical Industry
The Political Attractiveness of Price Controls on Prescription Drugs
Consequences of Price Controls on Prescription Drugs
Should Kidneys and Other Organs Be Bought and Sold?
Sources of Organs for Transplant
Donor Compensation Proposals
Opposition to Financial Incentives to Organ Donation
Additional Considerations
The Role of Government in Medical Care
Public-Interest View of Government
Economic Theory of Regulation
Medical Research, Medical Education, Alcohol Consumption, and Pollution: Who Should Pay?
External Costs and Benefits
Government Policies When Externalities Exist
Divergence between Theoretical and Actual Government Policy
The Canadian Healthcare System
Higher Life Expectancy and Lower Infant Mortality Rate
Universal Coverage
Controlling Healthcare Costs in Canada
Consequences of Strict Limits on Per Capita Costs
Is Canada Abandoning its Single-Payer System?
Should the United States Adopt the Canadian System?
Employer-Mandated National Health Insurance
The Uninsured
Why the Uninsured Do Not Have Health Insurance
Consequences of Employer-Mandated Health Insurance
Political Consequences of Employer-Mandated Health Insurance
National Health Insurance: Which Approach and Why?
Criteria for National Health Insurance
National Health Insurance Proposals
Refundable Tax Credits: An Income-Related Proposal
Financing Long-Term Care
The Nature of Long-Term Care
Current State of Long-Term Care Financing
Why Do So Few Aged Buy Long-Term Care Insurance?
Approaches to Financing Long-Term Care
The Politics of Healthcare Reform
Differing Goals of Healthcare Reform
The Need for Visible Benefits to the Middle Class and Aged
Groups with a Concentrated Interest in Healthcare Reform
The Legislative Process
The Administration's Objective for Healthcare Reform: A Hypothesis
The Years Ahead
Brief Summary of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010
Glossary
References
Index
About the Author

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