Principles of Helicopter Flight

ISBN-10: 1560276495

ISBN-13: 9781560276494

Edition: 2nd 2006

Authors: W. J. Wagtendonk
List price: $24.95 Buy it from $8.40
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Description: Recently updated, this comprehensive handbook explains the aerodynamics of helicopter flight, as well as how to perform typical helicopter maneuvers, unlike many aviation training manuals which are strictly how-to guides. Beginning with the basics of aerodynamics, each step of the process is fully illustrated and thoroughly explained-- from the physics of helicopter flying and advanced operations to helicopter design and performance-- providing helicopter pilots with a sound technical foundation on which to base their in-flight decisions. Containing discussions on the NOTAR (no tail rotor) system, strakes, and frequently misunderstood principles of airspeed and high-altitude operations, this revised edition also includes the latest procedures and regulations from the Federal Aviation Administration.

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Book details

List price: $24.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Aviation Supplies & Academics, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/1/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 320
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.870
Language: English

W. J. Wagtendonkis a retired flight instructor and a former pilot in the Royal New Zealand Air Force. He isnbsp;the founder ofnbsp;the Nelson Aviation College in Motueka, New Zealand, the firstnbsp;flight school approved to conduct both fixed-wing and helicopter courses.

Foreword
Preface
Physics
Newton's Laws
Newton's First Law
Newton's Second Law
Newton's Third Law
Conclusion
Mathematical Terms
Velocity
Acceleration
Equilibrium
Gravitational Forces
Centripetal Force
Vector Quantities
Moments and Couples
Moments
Couples
Energy
Pressure Energy
Dynamic (Kinetic) Energy
Units of Measurement
Graphs
The Atmosphere
Atmospheric Pressure
Air Temperature
Combined Effects
Moisture Content
The Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
Pressure Altitude
Density Altitude
Summary
Operational Considerations
Lift
Definitions
The Lift Formula
Dynamic Energy
Summary
Indicated Airspeed and True Airspeed
Center of Pressure
Aerodynamic Center
Drag
Types of Drag
Parasite Drag
Profile Drag
Form Drag
Skin Friction
Induced Drag
Tip Vortices
Effect of Airspeed on Induced Drag
Effect of Aspect Ratio
Methods to Reduce Induced Drag
Wash-out
Tip Design
Total Drag Curve
Conclusion
Lift/Drag Ratio
Best (or Maximum) L/D Ratio
Other Factors Influencing L/D Ratio
Conclusion
Aerodynamic Forces
Definitions
Rotor Systems
Introduction
Rotational Airflow (Vr)
Blade Angle of Attack
Induced Flow
Airflow Caused by Aircraft Velocity
The Forces
Total Rotor Thrust
Rotor Drag (Torque)
Angle of Attack and the Rotor Thrust/Rotor Drag Ratio
Induced Flow and the Rotor Thrust/Rotor Drag Ratio
Inflow Angle
The Force Opposing Weight
Factors Influencing Rotor Thrust
Air Density
Rotor rpm
Blade Angle
Disc Area
Significant Aspects of High Inertia Blades
Conclusion
Rotor Blade Airfoils
Drag Factors
Stress Factors
Effect of Local Air Velocity on Blade Design
Blade Tip Speeds
Development in Blade Design
Rotor Drag (Torque)
Disc Loading Changes
Changes in Gross Weight
Changes in Altitude
Changes in Configuration
Ground Effect
Translational Lift
Summary
The Anti-Torque Rotor
Anti-Torque Functions
Mechanical Considerations
Anti-Torque and Demand for Power
Effect of the Wind
Translating Tendency (Tail Rotor Drift)
Rolling Tendency
Tail Rotor Flapping
Shrouded Tail Rotors
Tail Rotor Design
Other Methods of Anti-Torque Control
Strakes and Anti-Torque
Tail Rotor Failure
Controls and Their Effects
Collective Control
Cyclic Control
Effect of Controls on Blade Lead-Lag Behavior
Mean Lag Position
The Four Main Causes of Movement about the Lead/Lag Hinge
Conservation of Angular Momentum (Coriolis Effect)
Hookes Joint Effect
Periodic Drag Changes
Random Changes
The Hover
Hover Our-of Ground Effect (OGE) and In-Ground Effect (IGE)
Factors Affecting Ground Effect
Helicopter Height Above Ground Level
Density Altitude and Gross Weight
Gross Weight and Power Required
Nature of the Surface
Slope
Wind Effect
Confined Areas - Recirculation
Factors Determining the Degree of Recirculation
Over-Pitching
Forward Flight
Three Basic Aspects of Horizontal Flight
Tilting the Disc with Cyclic
An Alternate Explanation of Cyclic Action
Dissymmetry of Lift
Eliminating Dissymmetry of Lift
Blow-Back (Flap Back)
Blow-back (Flap-Back) When Using Collective
Summary
Designs that Reduce Flapping Amplitude
Delta-3 Hinges
Offset Pitch Horns
Reverse Flow
Translational Lift
Transverse Flow Effect
Power, Range and Endurance
Power
Ancillary Power
Profile Power
Induced Power
Parasite Power
The Total Horsepower Required Curve (the HPR)
Attitude
Weight
Slingload and Parasite Drag Items
Flying the Helicopter for Range
Effect of the Wind
Engine Considerations
Range Summary
Flying the Helicopter for Endurance
Endurance Summary
Climbing and Descending
Climbing
The Horsepower Available Curve (The HPA)
Factors Affecting the Horsepower Available Curve
Altitude
Density Altitude
Leaning the Mixture
Collective Setting
Rate of Climb
Angle of Climb
Effect of Lowering Horsepower Available Curve
Summary
Effect of the Wind
Climb Performance Summary
Descending
Angle of Descent
Effect of the Wind on Descents
Descent Performance Summary
Maneuvers
Turning
Rate of Turn
Radius of Turn
Rate and Radius Interaction
The Steep Turn
Power Requirement
The Climbing Turn
The Descending Turn
Effect of Altitude on Rate of Turn and Radius of Turn
Effect of Changes in Gross Weight on Rate and Radius
Effect of the Wind on Rate and Radius
Effect of the Wind on Indicated Airspeed and Translational Lift
Effect of Slingloads
Effect of Slipping and Skidding
Pull-Out from a Descent
The Flare
Initial Action
Flare Effects
Thrust Reversal
Increasing Total Rotor Thrust
Increasing Rotor rpm
Management of Collective
Retreating Blade Stall
Effect of Increasing Airspeed on Stall Angle
Factors Affecting the Advancing Blade
Symptoms of Retreating Blade Stall
Recovery
Factors Influencing V[subscript ne]
Conclusion
Autorotation
Initial Aircraft Reaction
The Lift/Drag Ratio and Forces Involved
The Stalled Region
The Driven (Propeller) Region
The Driving (Autorotative) Region
Combined Effects of All Regions
Autorotation and Airspeed
Combined Effect
Effect of Forward Speed on the Three Regions
Effect of Airspeed Changes on Rotor rpm
Autorotation Range and Endurance
Effect of Altitude on Range and Endurance
Effect of Gross Weight on Range and Endurance
Effect of Parasite Drag and Slingloads on Range and Endurance
Touchdown
Loss of Power at Low Heights
Factors Influencing Rotor rpm Decay When the Engine Fails
Combination of Airspeed and Height Best Avoided
Hazardous Flight Conditions
Vortex Ring State
Effect on the Root Section of the Blade
Effect on the Tip Section of the Blade
Flight Conditions Likely to Lead to Vortex Ring State
Symptoms of Vortex Ring State
Recovery from Vortex Ring State
Tail Rotor Vortex Ring State
Ground Resonance
Causes of Ground Resonance
Factors that May Cause Ground Resonance
Rotor Head Vibrations
Fuselage Factors
Ground Resonance Recovery Action
Blade Sailing
Dynamic Rollover
Factors Influencing the Critical Angle
Cyclic Limitations
Mast Bumping
Avoiding Mast Bumping
Recovery from Low and Zero g
Mast Bumping Summary
Exceeding Rotor rpm Limits
Reasons for High Rotor rpm Limits
Engine Considerations
Blade Attachment Stress
Sonic Problems
Reasons for Low Rotor rpm Limits
Insufficient Centrifugal Force
Reduced Tail Rotor Thrust
Rotor Stalls
Recovery from Low Rotor rpm
Helicopter Design and Components
Transmission
Main Rotor Gear Box
Freewheeling Unit
Drive Shafts
Tail Rotor Gear Box
Rotor Brake
Clutch
Chip Detectors
Governors
Swashplate (Control Orbit)
Phase Lag
Advance Angle
Rotor Blades
Chordwise Blade Balancing
Spanwise Blade Balancing
Trim Controls
Bias Control
Electronic Servo Systems
Tail Rotors
Tail Rotor Flapping
Tail Rotor Rotation
Helicopter Vibrations
Types of Vibrations
Vertical Vibrations
Lateral Vibrations
Combined Vertical and Lateral Vibrations
High Frequency Vibrations
Engine Vibrations
Remedial Action by the Pilot
Control Functions
Collective
Twist Grip Throttle
Engine Cooling
Carburetor Icing
Dual Tachometer Instruments
Rotor Stabilizing Design Systems
The Bell Stabilizing Bar
The Hiller System
The Underslung Rotor System
Rotorless Anti-Torque System
Advantages of the Notar System
Components
Air Intake
Engine-driven Fan
Slots
Direct Jet Thruster
Vertical Stabilizers
Undercarriages
Skids
Wheels
Oleo (Shock) Struts
Stability
Static Stability
Dynamic Stability
Stability in the Three Planes of Movement
Longitudinal Stability
Longitudinal Stability Aids
Lateral Stability
Directional Stability
Directional Stability Aids
Cross Coupling with Lateral Stability
Offset Flapping Hinges
Special Helicopter Techniques
Crosswind Factors
Lateral Blow-back (Flap-back)
Weathervane Action
Effect on tail Rotor Thrust
Different Types of Takeoffs and Landings
Downwind Takeoffs and Landings
Running Takeoff
Cushion-Creep Takeoff
Confined Area Takeoff (Towering Takeoff)
Maximum Performance Takeoff
Running Landing
The Zero-Speed Landing
Operations on Sloping Surfaces
Sling Operations
The Equipment
The Sling
Ground Handling
Flying Techniques
Snagging of Cable or Strap on the Undercarriage before Liftoff
Never-Exceed Speed (V[subscript ne])
Preflight Rigging
Length of Cable or Strap
Number and Type of Slings
Nets
Pallets
Load Center of Gravity
Pilot Action in Case of Helicopter Oscillation
The Approach
Types of Slingload
Horizontal Loads
Unusual Loads
Conclusion
Mountain Flying
Updrafts and Downdrafts
Thermal Currents
Katabatic and Anabatic Winds
Mechanical Turbulence
Wind Strength
Size and Shape of Mountains
Stability or Instability of Air
Wind Direction Relative to Mountain Orientation
Summary
Valley Flying
Ridgeline Flying
The "Standard" Mountain Approach
General Coinments on Mountain Approaches
High Attitude Approach Considerations
Transition
Ground Effect Considerations on Mountain Sites
Determining Wind Change during Critical Phases
Landing Site Selection
Surface of Sites
Flight in Areas Covered in Snow and Ice
Survival Equipment
Helicopter Icing
Ice Accretion
Influence of Temperature and Drop Size
Water Content of Air
Kinetic Heating
Shape of Airfoils and Other Aircraft Components
Mechanical Flexion and Vibration
Ice Formation on Blades at Different Temperatures
Electrical Anti-Icing
Consequences of Ice Accretion
Engine Intake Icing
Helicopter Performance
Helicopter Performance Factors
Altitude
Pressure Altitude
Density Altitude
Combined Effect of Pressure and Density Altitude
Moisture Content of Air
Aircraft Gross Weight
External Stores
The Wind
Power Check
Performance Graphs
Units of Measurement
Hover Ceiling Graph
Takeoff Distance over a 50-Foot Obstacle
Turbine Engine Power Check
Maximum Gross Weight for Hovering
Climb Performance
Range
Endurance
Weight and Balance
Definitions
Weight
Balance
Beyond the Center of Gravity Limits
Excessive Forward Center of Gravity
Excessive Aft Center of Gravity
Summary
Calculating the Center of Gravity Position
To Calculate the Longitudinal Center of Gravity Position
To Calculate the Lateral Takeoff Center of Gravity Position
Summary
Effect of External Loads on Center of Gravity Position
Conclusion
Sample Examination
Temperature Conversion
Altimeter Setting Conversion
Review and Examination Answers
Glossary
Index
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