Research Methods in Human Development

ISBN-10: 1559348755

ISBN-13: 9781559348751

Edition: 2nd 1999

List price: $68.12
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Book details

List price: $68.12
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 7/3/1998
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 416
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Preface
The Scientific View
Use of Research Methods
The Scientific Approach
The Limitations of Intuition and Authority
Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach
Goals of Science
Description of Behavior
Prediction of Behavior
Causes and Explanations of Behavior
Basic and Applied Research
Basic Research
Applied Research
Comparing Basic and Applied Research
Evaluation Research
Developmental Research
Cultural Research
Ethical Concerns
Milgram's Obedience Experiments
The Principle of Psychological Risk
Stressful Research With Children
The Principle of Informed Consent and Deception
Informed Consent
Ethical Standards for Research With Children
Deception
Debriefing
Research in Action: Deception and Debriefing Issues
Institutional Review of Research
Other Ethical Issues in Research
Special Concerns Working With Children
Research Not Involving Informed Consent
Privacy and Confidentiality
The Issue of Nontreated Controls
Origins of Scientific Inquiry
Sources of Ideas
Common Sense
Observation of the World Around Us
Theories
Past Research
Hypotheses
Library Research
The Nature of Journals
Leading Journals in Human Development and Family Relations
Journals on Human Development
Literature Searching
Psychological Abstracts
Computer-Assisted Searches
Using Psyclit
The Internet
The Key Article Approach to Literature Searching
Anatomy of a Research Article
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
Studying Relationships Between Variables
Scientific Variables
Operational Definitions
Independent and Dependent Variables
Types of Dependent Measures
Self-Report Measures
Behavioral Measures
Physiological Measures
Evaluating Dependent Measures
Reliability
Validity
Reactivity
Scales of Measurement
Correlational and Experimental Methods
Types of Relationships
Positive Linear Relationship
Negative Linear Relationship
Curvilinear Relationship
No Relationship
Correlation Coefficient
Studying Relationships
The Correlational Method
Direction of Cause and Effect
Research in Action: A Correlational Study
The Third Variable Problem
The Experimental Method
Experimental Control
Randomization
Disadvantages of the Experimental Method
Artificiality of Experiments
Research in Action: An Experimental Study
Ethical Considerations
Description of Behavior
Prediction of Behavior
Descriptive Methods
Why Conduct Descriptive Studies?
Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Research in Action: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches Combined
Field Observation
Observations in Natural Settings
Ethnography
Features of Field Observation
Issues in Field Observation
Steps in Conducting Field Observation
Advice for the Fieldworker
Methodological Issues
Research in Action: Bullies on the Playground
Systematic Observation
Coding Systems
Time and Event Sampling
Methodological Issues
Advantages and Disadvantages of Observational Methods
Case Studies
Archival Research
Statistical Records
Research In Action: Archival Research
Survey Archives
Written Records
Content Analysis of Documents
Survey Research
Questionnaire Versus Interview
Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Probability Sampling
Critically Evaluating Survey Samples
Research in Action: The U.S. Census in the Year 2000
Constructing Questions
Defining Research Questions
Using Closed-Ended Versus Open-Ended Questions
Wording Questions
Ordering Questions
Rating Scales
Numerical Scales
Graphic Rating Scales
Comparative Rating Scales
Semantic Differential Scales
Likert Scales
Potential Problems With Surveys
Retrospective Memory
Ethical Concerns
Panel Study
Designing Experiments
Confounding and Internal Validity
Examining Designs for Threats to Validity
History
Research in Action: Confounding
Maturation
Testing
Instrumentation
Statistical Regression
Mortality
Selection Differences
Diagramming Experimental Designs
Poorly Designed Experiments: Pre-Experimental Designs
One-Shot Case Study
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Nonequivalent Control Group Design
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Research in Action: Quasi-Experimental Research
Well-Designed Experiments
Posttest Only Control Group Design
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
Diagramming Designs Revisited
Developmental and Single-Subject Designs
Cross-Sectional Research
Hypothetical Cohort Differences Between 80-Year-Olds and 20-Year-Olds
Longitudinal Research
Comparisons of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Methods
Sequential Designs
Research in Action: Children of the Depression
Single-Subject Designs
Reversal Designs
Multiple Baseline Designs
Problems With Single-Subject Designs
Applications for Education and Counseling
Conducting Research
Ethical Considerations
Obtaining Participants and Sampling
Sources of Research Participants
Research in Action: Designing an Intervention Program in a Diverse Community
Obtaining Consent
Manipulating the Independent Variables
Setting the Stage
Types of Manipulations
Strength of the Manipulation
Cost of the Manipulation
Selecting Dependent Measures
Sensitivity of the Dependent Measure
Multiple Measures
Cost of Measures
Additional Controls
Placebo Controls
Experimenter Expectancies
Attention Controls
Research in Action: Alzheimer's Disease
Maturation Control Group
Debriefing
Research Proposals
Estimating Costs
Pilot Studies and Manipulation Checks
Using Computers to Conduct Research
Analyzing and Interpreting the Results
Communicating Research to Others
Professional Meetings
Topics Presented at a Recent SRCD Convention
Designing and Conducting Research
Journal Articles
Electronic Publication
Practical Considerations in Conducting Research
The Assessment Process
Establishing Rapport
Children
The Setting
Working With Children
Infants
Preschoolers
Elementary School-Aged Children
Older Adults
Defining the Older Adult
Working With Older Adults
Families
Special Needs Children
Diversity
Test Instruments
Some Widely Used Measures in Developmental and Family Research
Devising Your Own Test or Using an Existing Measure
Using Self-Report Measures
Using Rating Scales
Research in Action: Social Competence in Preschoolers--Just How Many is a Few?
Sources of Information
Sources for Standardized Test Information
Research in Action: Teacher Ratings Versus Observer Ratings
Sources for Self-Report Measures
Sources for Family Measures
Sources for Personality Measures
Sources for Demographic Measures
Factorial Designs
Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable
Increasing the Number of Dependent Variables
Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs
Factorial Notation
Interpretation of Effects in Factorial Designs
Main Effects
Interaction Effects
Describing Main Effects and Interaction Effects
Possible Outcomes of 2 [times] 2 Factorial Designs
Further Considerations in Factorial Designs
Subject Variables
Designs With More Than Two Independent Variables
Assigning Participants to Conditions
Assigning Participants to Experimental Conditions
Independent Groups Designs
Simple Random Assignment
Matched Random Assignment
Repeated Measures Designs
Advantages and Disadvantages of Repeated Measures Designs
Counterbalancing in Repeated Measures Designs
Assigning Participants to Groups in Factorial Designs
Choosing Between Independent Groups and Repeated Measures Designs
Examples of Human Development Research Questions
Age Group Comparisons
Special Populations
Family Variables
Understanding Research Results
Analyzing the Results of Research Investigations
Comparing Group Percentages
Correlating Individual Scores
Comparing Group Means
Frequency Distributions
Frequency Polygons
Histograms
Descriptive Statistics Versus Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Central Tendency
Variability
Graphing Relationships
Inferential Statistics
Hypothesis Testing
Probability
Probability: The Case of the Gifted Baby
Sampling Distributions
Issues in Decision Making
Correct Decisions
Type I and Type II Errors
Examples of Type I and Type II Errors
Choosing a Significance Level
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results
Research in Action: Medical Decisions
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Results
Research in Action: The Fort Bragg Demonstration Project
Statistics
The t Test
Research in Action: Happiness in Elderly Citizens
Statistical Phrases
Analysis of Variance: The F Statistic
Correlation Coefficient
Indexing the Strength of a Relationship
Graphing Correlations With Scatterplots
Interpreting Correlations
Restriction of the Range
Curvilinear Relationships
Significance of a Correlation Coefficient
Spurious Correlations and the Third Variable Problem
Partial Correlation and the Third Variable Problem
Correlation Coefficients and the Correlational Method
Effect Size
Advanced Correlational Techniques
Regression Equations
Multiple Correlation
Structural Equation Models
Selecting Statistical Tests
Research in Action: High School Students in Japan, China, and the United States
Computer Analysis of Data
Generalizability
Generalization as a Statistical Interaction
The Importance of Replications
Exact Replications
Conceptual Replications
Generalizing to Other Participant Populations
Volunteers
Educational Level: College Students
Age Group
Diversity
In Defense of Middle-Class White Families in Developmental Research
Generalizing to Other Experimenters
Generalizing to Other Settings
Mundane and Experimental Realism
Mutual Benefits of Lab and Field Research
Evaluating Generalizations: Literature Reviews and Meta-Analysis
Using Research to Change Communities and Families
Writing Research Reports
Writing Style
Clarity
Acknowledging the Work of Others
Active Versus Passive Voice
Biased Language
Typing and Word Processing
Organization of the Report
Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
References
Appendix
Author Note
Footnotes
Tables
Figures
Summary: Order of Pages
The Use of Headings
Citing and Referencing Sources
Citation Style
Reference List Style
Abbreviations
Some Grammatical Considerations
Transition Words and Phrases
Troublesome Words and Phrases
Reporting Numbers and Statistics
Conclusion
Sample Paper
Statistical Tests
Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Statistical Significance Tests
Chi-Square (X[superscript 2])
Analysis of Variance (F Test)
Analysis of Variance: One Independent Variable
Analysis of Variance: Two Independent Variables
Analysis of Variance: Repeated Measures and Matched Subjects
Analysis of Variance: Conclusion
Correlation and Effect Size
Effect Size for the Chi-Square Statistic
Effect Size for the F Statistic
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Statistical Tables
Random Number Table
Random Number Table
Critical Values of Chi-Square
Critical Values of t
Critical Values of F
Critical Values of r
Glossary
References
Index
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