Fundamentals of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

ISBN-10: 1449667538
ISBN-13: 9781449667535
Edition: 2013
Authors: Ray M. Merrill
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Description: This book will familiarize students with basic principles of epidemiology and biostatistics. Designed for use in a single course, it will clarify the distinct ion and complementary roles of epidemiology and biostatistics in a range of settings, and  More...

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Book details

List price: $104.95
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 5/7/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 424
Size: 7.00" wide x 8.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

This book will familiarize students with basic principles of epidemiology and biostatistics. Designed for use in a single course, it will clarify the distinct ion and complementary roles of epidemiology and biostatistics in a range of settings, and train students on the complementary roles epidemiology and biostatistics play in carrying out selected activities in the health professions. After completing this book, the student should be able to:• Describe epidemiological methods and study designs • Select appropriate methodologies for epidemiological investigation • Use the epidemiological process to address health care problems • Evaluate environmental epidemiology and population surveillance • Describe epidemiological measures of health • Distinguish the roles and relationships between epidemiology and statistics • Combine appropriate epidemiological concepts and statistical measures • Calculate probabilities and conditional probabilities of health-related events

Preface
About the Author
Introduction
Health
Epidemiology
Transmission of Disease
Descriptive Epidemiology
Analytic Epidemiology
Study Designs
Scientific Method
Biostatistics
Evaluating the Literature
Exercises
References
Data and Descriptive Measures
Data and Related Concepts
Populations, Samples, and Random Sampling
Scales of Measurement
Summarizing and Presenting Nominal and Ordinal Data
Summarizing and Presenting Numerical Data
Exercises
References
Standardizing Rates
Age-Specific Rates
Direct Method of Standardization
Indirect Method of Standardization
Uses of Standardized Rates
Exercises
References
Describing Data with Graphs
Arithmetic-Scale and Logarithmic-Scale Line Graphs
Bar Chart
Pie Chart
Histogram
Frequency Polygon
Area Map
Spot Map
Stem-and-Leaf Plot
Box Plot
Scatter Plot
Population Pyramid
Exercises
References
Life Tables*
Calculation of the Probability of Dying (q<subx</sub>)
Calculation of the Remaining Life Table
Abridging the Complete Life Table
Multiple Cause Life Table
Years of Potential Life Lost
Exercises
References
Probability
Probability Concepts
Mutually Exclusive Events versus Independent Events
Conditional Probabilities
Rule for Multiplying Probabilities
Independent Events
Bayes' Theorem
Clinical Epidemiology
Methods of Sampling
Exercises
References
Random Variables and Probability Distributions
Random Variables
Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables
The Binomial Probability Distribution
The Poisson Probability Distribution
Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables
Normal Probability Distribution
Normal Approximation to the Binomial
Sampling Distribution
Sampling Distribution of the Mean
The Central Limit Theorem
Exercises
References
Estimation and Hypothesis Testing
Estimators
Confidence Intervals for Normal Means and Known Variance
t Distribution
Confidence Intervals for Normal Means and Unknown
Variance 157Confidence Intervals for the Binomial with Large Sample Sizes
Hypothesis Testing
The P Value
Type I and Type II Errors
Research Question about the Mean in One Group
Research Question about a Proportion in One Group
Research Question about Means in Two Separate Groups
Research Question about Proportions in Two Independent Groups
Evaluating Differences Using Error Bar Graphs
Chi-Square Distribution
Research Question about Means in Three or More Groups
Exercises
References
Sample Size
Sample Size Techniques for Analytic Studies
Loss to Follow-Up
Fixed Sample Size
Ways to Minimize Sample Size and Maximize Power
Sample Size Techniques for Descriptive Studies
Exercises
References
Study Designs
Study Design
Cross-Sectional Study Design
Ecologic Study Design
Case-Control Study Design
Cohort Study Design
Nested Case-Control Study Design
Chance, Bias, and Confounding
Chance
Bias
Confounding
Exercises
References
Statistical Measures of Association Among Variables
Classification of Statistical Techniques and Tests by Variable Type
Measures of Association for Two-Level Nominal Exposure and Outcome Variables
Case-Control Study
Cohort Study
Cross-Sectional Study
A Note on the Risk and Odds Ratios
Some Cohort-Based Measures
Sample Size Estimation for the Correlation Coefficient
Exercises
References
Experimental Studies
Experimental Study Designs
Random Assignment
Nonrandom Assignment
Blinding
Designing a Clinical Trial
Other Selected Types of Experimental Studies
Exercises
References
Survival Analysis*
The Life Table Method
The Product Limit Method
Log-Rank Test
Exercises
References
Cause and Effect
Causal Inference
Causal Models
Modes of Disease Transmission
Risk Factors
Web of Causation
Exercises
References
SAS Procedure Code
Tables
Model Building
Answers to Chapter Exercises
Index

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