Principles of Ecotoxicology

ISBN-10: 1439862664
ISBN-13: 9781439862667
Edition: 4th 2012 (Revised)
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Description: Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their  More...

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Book details

List price: $100.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 3/12/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 386
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Presenting a multidisciplinary perspective in a concise format, Principles of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition discusses the fundamental chemical and ecological nature of pollution processes while identifying the major classes of pollutants and their environmental fate. The first edition was originally created to fill the need for a textbook that covered the basic principles of a developing and wide-ranging field and the second edition expanded on that theme. Keeping the focus on principles over practice that has made each incarnation of this textbook so popular, the third edition brings the text up to date and strengthens coverage in areas that have come to the forefront of the field.The third edition features new material on pollutants that are receiving closer scrutiny, naturally occurring poisons, the history of chemical warfare, population risk assessment, community structure, neonicotinoids, endocrine disruption, and neurotoxicity. A new section on extrapolating from molecular interaction to the consequent population changes highlights the molecules to ecosystem approach and provides the groundwork for discussions on the employment of biomarker strategies in field studies. A major theme of the new material is how the concepts discussed can contribute to improved methods of environmental risk assessment. With updates to every chapter, this text provides essential information for students in easy to use and understandable format.

Preface to Fourth Edition
Acknowledgments
Authors
Introduction
Pollutants and Their Fate in Ecosystems
Major Classes of Pollutants
Inorganic Ions
Metals
Anions
Organic Pollutants
Hydrocarbons
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Polychlorinated Benzodioxins (PCDDs)
Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs)
Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)
Organochlorine Insecticides
Organophosphorous Insecticides (OPs)
Carbamate Insecticides
Pyrethroid Insecticides
Neonicotinoids
Phenoxy Herbicides (Plant Growth Regulators)
Anticoagulant Rodenticides
Detergents
Chlorophenols
Ethinylestradiol (EE2)
Pharmaceuticals
Organometallic Compounds
Radioactive Isotopes
Introduction
Natures and Intensities of Radioactive Decay Products
Half-Lives
Biochemistry
Gaseous Pollutants
Nanoparticles
Summary
Further Reading
Routes by which Pollutants Enter Ecosystems
Entry into Surface Waters
Contamination of Land
Discharge into Atmosphere
Quantification of Release of Pollutants
Summary
Further Reading
Long-Range Movements and Global Transport of Pollutants
Factors Determining Movements and Distributions of Pollutants
Polarity and Water Solubility
Partition Coefficients
Vapor Pressure
Partition between Environmental Compartments
Molecular Stability and Recalcitrant Molecules
Transport in Water
Transport in Air
Models for Environmental Distribution of Chemicals
Summary
Further Reading
The Fate of Metals and Radioactive Isotopes in Contaminated Ecosystems
Introduction
Localization
Persistence
Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation Factors
Bioavailability
Cocktails of Inorganic Pollutants
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Introduction
Metals
Radioactivity
Aquatic Systems
Summary
Further Reading
Fates of Organic Pollutants in Individuals and in Ecosystems
Fate within Individual Organisms
General Model
Processes of Uptake
Processes of Distribution
Storage
Metabolism
Sites of Excretion
Toxicokinetic Models
Toxicokinetic Models for Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation
Organic Pollutants in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Fate in Soils
Transfer along Terrestrial Food Chains
Organic Pollutants in Aquatic Ecosystems
Pollutants in Sediments
Transfer along Aquatic Food Chains
Summary
Further Reading
Effects of Pollutants on Individual Organisms
Testing for Ecotoxicity
General Principles
Determination of Toxicities of Mixtures
Toxicity Testing with Terrestrial Organisms
Introduction
Invertebrate Testing
Testing with Earthworms
Tests with Springtails
Tests with Beneficial Arthropods
Automated Videotracking
Vertebrates
Plants
Toxicity Testing with Aquatic Organisms
Tests for Direct Absorption from Water
Sediment Toxicity Tests
Risk Assessment
Field Testing for Toxicity
Alternative Methods in Ecotoxicity Testing
Alternative Methods for Estimating Toxicity to Vertebrates
Toxicity Testing on Live Vertebrates
Toxicity Testing on Nonvertebrates
Toxicity Testing on Cellular Systems
Predictive Models
Alternative Approaches toward More Ecological End Points
Field Studies
Microcosms and Msocosms
Theoretical Models
Summary
Further Reading
Biochemical Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Protective Biochemical Responses
Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity
Examples of Molecular Mechanisms of Toxicity
Genotoxic Compounds
Neurotoxic Compounds
Mitochondrial Poisons
Vitamin K Antagonists
Thyroxine Antagonists
Inhibition of ATPases
Environmental Estrogens and Androgens
Reactions with Protein Sulfhydryl (SH) Groups
Photosystems of Plants
Plant Growth Regulator Herbicides
Summary
Further Reading
Physiological Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Effects of Pollutants at Cellular Level
Effects at Organ Level in Animals
Effects at Whole Organism Level
Neurophysiological Effects
Effects on Behavior
Reproductive Effects
Effects on Plants
Energy Costs of Physiological Change
Summary
Further Reading
Interactive Effects of Pollutants
Introduction
Additive Effects
Potentiation of Toxicity
Potentiation Due to Inhibition of Detoxification
Potentiation from Increased Activation
Field Detection of Potentiation
Summary
Further Reading
Biomarkers
Classification of Biomarkers
Specificity of Biomarkers
Relationship of Biomarkers to Adverse Effects
Specific Biomarkers
Inhibition of Esterases
The Induction of Monooxygenases
Studies of Genetic Materials
Porphyrins and Heme Synthesis
Induction of Vitellogenin
Behavioral Biomarkers
Biomarkers in Plants
Role of Biomarkers in Environmental Risk Assessment
Summary
Further Reading
In Situ Biological Monitoring
Introduction
Community Effects (Type 1 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Bioconcentration of Pollutants (Type 2 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Effects of Pollutants (Type 3 Biomonitoring)
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Genetically Based Resistance to Pollution (Type 4 Biomonitoring)
Conclusions
Summary
Further Reading
Effects of Pollutants on Populations and Communities
Changes in Numbers: Population Dynamics
Population Abundance
Population Growth Rate
Population Growth Rate Depends on the Properties of Individual Organisms
The Life History and Population Growth Rate of the Coastal Copepod Eurytemora affinis
Density Dependence
Identifying Which Factors Are Density Dependent: k-Value Analysis
Interactions between Species
Field Studies: Three Case Studies
The Decline of the Partridges
Population Studies of Pesticides and Birds of Prey in the UK
The Boxworth Project (Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Pesticides on Farmland)
Modeling the Effects of Insecticides on Skylarks for Risk Assessment Purposes
Summary
Further Reading
Evolution of Resistance to Pollution
Chronic Pollution Is Environmental Change
Evolutionary Processes in Constant Environments
The Evolution of Resistance When There Is a Mortality-Production Trade-Off
Evolutionary Responses to Environmental Changes
Monogenic Resistance
Case Studies
Evolution of Pesticide Resistance
Evolution of Metal Tolerance in Plants
Evolution of Industrial Melanism
Evolutionary Response of Dog Whelks, Nucella lapillus, to TBT Contamination
Evolution of Resistance to Pollution in Estuaries
Summary
Further Reading
Changes in Communities and Ecosystems
Introduction
Changes in Soil Processes: The Functional Approach
Changes in Compositions of Communities: The Structural Approach
Changes in Soil Ecosystems
Acidification of Lakes and Rivers
Mesocosms
Global Processes
Summary
Further Reading
Extrapolating from Molecular Interactions to Consequent Effects at Population Level
Introduction
Translation of Toxic Effects across Organizational Boundaries
From Effects at Site of Action to Localized Cellular Disturbances
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous System
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranes
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glands of Birds
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) on Estrogenic Receptors of Fish
From Cellular Disturbances to Effects at Whole Organism Level
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous System
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranes
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glands of Birds
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol on Estrogenic Receptors of Fish
From Effects on Whole Organism to Population Effects
Example A: Action of Organophosphates on Acetylcholinesterase of Nervous System
Example B: Action of p,p'-DDT on Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels of Axonal Membranes
Example C: Action of p,p'-DDE on Transport of Calcium into Eggshell Glands
Example D: Action of 17A-Ethinylestradiol on Estrogenic Receptors in Fish
Complete Causal Chain
Biomarker Strategies
Establishing Causality Where Pollution Already Exists
Biomarker Strategies in the Field
Control Problems
Selection of Biomarkers for Field Studies
Biomarkers and Environmental Risk Assessment
Summary
Further Reading
Biomarkers in Population Studies
DDE-Induced Eggshell Thinning in Raptorial and Fish-Eating Birds
Reproductive Failure of Fish-Eating Birds on Great Lakes of North America
Reproductive Failures of Mollusks Caused by Tributyl Tin
Forest Spraying in Eastern Canada to Control Spruce Budworm
Summary
Further Reading
Ecotoxicology: Looking to the Future
Changing Patterns of Chemical Pollution
Environmental Risk Assessment
The Use of Models in Population Risk Assessment
Technological Advances and New Biomarker Assays
A Better Integrated Approach to Environmental Risk Assessment?
Ethical Issues
Summary
Further Reading
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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