Introduction to Language

ISBN-10: 1413017738
ISBN-13: 9781413017731
Edition: 8th 2007
List price: $212.95
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Description: AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE is ideal for use at all levels and in many different areas of instruction, including education, languages, psychology, anthropology, teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), and linguistics. All chapters in this  More...

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Book details

List price: $212.95
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Cengage Heinle
Publication date: 5/31/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 608
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE is ideal for use at all levels and in many different areas of instruction, including education, languages, psychology, anthropology, teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), and linguistics. All chapters in this best-seller have been revised to reflect recent discoveries and new understanding of linguistics and languages.

Robert Rodman received his bachelor's degree in mathematics from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1961, a master's degree in mathematics in 1965, a master's degree in linguistics in 1971, and a Ph.D. in linguistics in 1973. He has been on the faculties of the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kyoto Industrial College in Japan, and North Carolina State University, where he is currently professor of computer science specializing in the areas of forensic linguistics, computer speech processing, and speaker verification and identification.

Preface
About the Authors
The Nature of Human Language
What Is Language?
Linguistic Knowledge
Knowledge of the Sound System
Knowledge of Words
Arbitrary Relation of Form and Meaning
The Creativity of Linguistic Knowledge
Knowledge of Sentences and Nonsentences
Linguistic Knowledge and Performance
What Is Grammar?
Descriptive Grammars
Prescriptive Grammars
Teaching Grammars
Language Universals
The Development of Grammar
Sign Languages: Evidence for the Innateness of Language
American Sign Language
Animal "Languages"
"Talking" Parrots
The Birds and the Bees
Language and Thought
What We Know about Language
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Brain and Language
The Human Brain
The Localization of Language in the Brain
Aphasia
Brain Imaging Technology
Brain Plasticity and Lateralization in Early Life
Split Brains
Other Experimental Evidence of Brain Organization
The Autonomy of Language
Other Dissociations of Language and Cognition
Laura
Christopher
Genetic Basis of Language
Language and Brain Development
The Critical Period
A Critical Period for Bird Song
The Evolution of Language
In the Beginning: The Origin of Language
God's Gift to Mankind?
The First Language
Human Invention or the Cries of Nature?
The Development of Language in the Species
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Grammatical Aspects of Language
Morphology: The Words of Language
Dictionaries
Content Words and Function Words
Morphemes: The Minimal Units of Meaning
Bound and Free Morphemes
Prefixes and Suffixes
Infixes
Circumfixes
Roots and Stems
Huckles and Ceives
Rules of Word Formation
Derivational Morphology
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
More about Derivational Morphemes
Lexical Gaps
Rule Productivity
"Pullet Surprises"
Sign Language Morphology
Word Coinage
Words from Names
Back-Formations
Compounds
Meaning of Compounds
Universality of Compounding
Blends
Reduced Words
Inflectional Morphemes
Exceptions and Suppletions
Morphology and Syntax
Morphological Analysis: Identifying Morphemes
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Syntax: The Sentence Patterns of Language
What the Syntax Rules Do
What Grammaticality Is Not Based On
Sentence Structure
Constituents and Constituency Tests
Syntactic Categories
Phrase Structure Trees and Rules
Some Conventions for Building Phrase Structure Trees
The Infinity of Language
Heads and Complements
Selection
What Heads the Sentence
Structural Ambiguities
More Structures
Sentence Relatedness
Transformational Rules
Structure-Dependent Rules
Syntactic Dependencies
Wh Questions
UG Principles and Parameters
Sign Language Syntax
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
The Meaning of Language
What Speakers Know about Sentence Meaning
Truth
Entailment and Related Notions
Ambiguity
Compositional Semantics
Semantic Rules
Semantic Rule I
Semantic Rule II
When Compositionality Goes Awry
Anomaly
Metaphor
Idioms
Lexical Semantics (Word Meanings)
Theories of Word Meaning
Reference
Sense
Lexical Relations
Semantic Features
Evidence for Semantic Features
Semantic Features and Grammar
Argument Structure
Thematic Roles
Pragmatics
Pronouns
Pronouns and Syntax
Pronouns and Discourse
Deixis
More on Situational Context
Maxims of Conversation
Implicatures
Speech Acts
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
Sound Segments
Identity of Speech Sounds
The Phonetic Alphabet
Articulatory Phonetics
Consonants
Places of Articulation
Manner of Articulation
Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants
Vowels
Lip Rounding
Diphthongs
Nasalization of Vowels
Tense and Lax Vowels
Different (Tongue) Strokes for Different Folks
Major Phonetic Classes
Noncontinuants and Continuants
Obstruents and Sonorants
Consonantal
Syllabic Sounds
Prosodic Features
Tone and Intonation
Phonetic Symbols and Spelling Correspondences
The "Phonetics" of Signed Languages
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language
The Pronunciation of Morphemes
The Pronunciation of Plurals
Additional Examples of Allomorphs
Phonemes: The Phonological Units of Language
Vowel Nasalization in English as an Illustration of Allophones
Allophones of /t/
Minimal Pairs in ASL
Complementary Distribution
Distinctive Features of Phonemes
Feature Values
Nondistinctive Features
Phonemic Patterns May Vary Across Languages
Natural Classes of Speech Sounds
Feature Specifications for American English Consonants and Vowels
The Rules of Phonology
Assimilation Rules
Dissimilation Rules
Feature-Changing Rules
Segment Insertion and Deletion Rules
Movement (Metathesis) Rules
From One to Many and from Many to One
The Function of Phonological Rules
Slips of the Tongue: Evidence for Phonological Rules
Prosodic Phonology
Syllable Structure
Word Stress
Sentence and Phrase Stress
Intonation
Sequential Constraints of Phonemes
Lexical Gaps
Why Do Phonological Rules Exist?
Phonological Analysis: Discovering Phonemes
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
The Psychology of Language
Language Acquisition
Mechanisms of Language Acquisition
Do Children Learn through Imitation?
Do Children Learn through Reinforcement?
Do Children Learn Language through Analogy?
Do Children Learn through Structured Input?
Children Construct Grammars
The Innateness Hypothesis
Stages in Language Acquisition
The Perception and Production of Speech Sounds
First Words
The Development of Grammar
The Acquisition of Phonology
The Acquisition of Word Meaning
The Acquisition of Morphology
The Acquisition of Syntax
The Acquisition of Pragmatics
The Development of Auxiliaries: A Case Study
Setting Parameters
The Acquisition of Signed Languages
Knowing More Than One Language
Childhood Bilingualism
Theories of Bilingual Development
Two Monolinguals in One Head
The Role of Input
Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism
Second Language Acquisition
Is L2 Acquisition the Same as L1 Acquisition?
Native Language Influence in L2 Acquisition
The Creative Component of L2 Acquisition
Is There a Critical Period for L2 Acquisition?
Second-Language Teaching Methods
Can Chimps Learn Human Language?
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Language Processing: Humans and Computers
The Human Mind at Work: Human Language Processing
Comprehension
The Speech Signal
Speech Perception and Comprehension
Bottom-up and Top-down Models
Lexical Access and Word Recognition
Syntactic Processing
Speech Production
Planning Units
Lexical Selection
Application and Misapplication of Rules
Nonlinguistic Influences
Computer Processing of Human Language
Frequency Analysis, Concordances, and Collocations
Information Retrieval and Summarization
Spell Checkers
Machine Translation
Computers That Talk and Listen
Computational Phonetics and Phonology
Computational Morphology
Computational Syntax
Computational Semantics
Computational Pragmatics
Computer Models of Grammar
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Language and Society
Language in Society
Dialects
Regional Dialects
Accents
Dialects of English
Social Dialects
The "Standard"
African American English
Latino (Hispanic) English
Genderlects
Sociolinguistic Analysis
Languages in Contact
Lingua Francas
Pidgins
Creoles
Language in Use
Styles
Slang
Jargon and Argot
Taboo or Not Taboo?
Euphemisms
Racial and National Epithets
Language and Sexism
Marked and Unmarked Forms
The Generic "He"
Secret Languages and Language Games
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Language Change: The Syllables of Time
The Regularity of Sound Change
Sound Correspondences
Ancestral Protolanguages
Phonological Change
Phonological Rules
The Great Vowel Shift
Morphological Change
Syntactic Change
Lexical Change
Addition of New Words
Borrowings or Loan Words
History through Loan Words
Loss of Words
Semantic Change
Broadening
Narrowing
Meaning Shifts
Reconstructing "Dead" Languages
The Nineteenth-Century Comparativists
Cognates
Comparative Reconstruction
Historical Evidence
Extinct and Endangered Languages
The Genetic Classification of Languages
Languages of the World
Types of Languages
Why Do Languages Change?
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Writing: The ABCs of Language
The History of Writing
Pictograms and Ideograms
Cuneiform Writing
The Rebus Principle
From Hieroglyphics to the Alphabet
Modern Writing Systems
Word Writing
Syllabic Writing
Consonantal Alphabet Writing
Alphabetic Writing
Reading, Writing, and Speech
Reading
Spelling
Spelling Pronunciations
Summary
References for Further Reading
Exercises
Glossary
Index

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