100 Questions (and Answers) about Research Methods

ISBN-10: 1412992036
ISBN-13: 9781412992039
Edition: 2012
Author(s): Neil J. Salkind
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List Price: $27.00
Copyright Year: 2012
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication Date: 6/7/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 192
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.594
Language: English

Neil J. Salkind received his PhD from the University of Maryland in Human Development. After teaching for 35 years at the University of Kansas, he remains a professor emeritus in the department of psychology and research in education, where he continues to collaborate with colleagues and work with students. His early interests were in the area of children's cognitive development, and after research in the areas of cognitive style and (what was then known as) hyperactivity, he was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of North Carolina's Bush Center for Child and Family Policy. His work then changed direction to focus on child and family policy, specifically the impact of alternative forms of public support on various child and family outcomes. He has delivered more than 150 professional papers and presentations, written more than 100 trade and textbooks, and is the author of Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics (SAGE), Theories of Human Development (SAGE), and Exploring Research (Prentice Hall). He has edited several encyclopedias, including the Encyclopedia of Human Development, the Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics, and the recently published Encyclopedia of Research Design. He was editor of Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography for 13 years and lives in Lawrence, Kansas, where he likes to read, swim with the River City Sharks, letterpress print using 1820s technology, bake brownies (see the Excel version of Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics for the recipe at http://www.statisticsforpeople.com), and poke around old Volvos and old houses.

Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Understanding the Research Process and Getting Started
Why Is Research Necessary, and What Are Some of Its Benefits?
Generally, What Is the Process Through Which a Research Topic Is Identified, and Do I Have to Be an Experienced Researcher to Select a Topic of Interest to Me?
What Is the "Scientific Method," and How Can I Apply That to My Own Research?
There Are Different Types of Research Models That One Might Use. Can You Give Me a General Overview and How They Might Compare?
What Is the Best Research Model for My Purposes?
What Is the Difference Between Basic and Applied Research?
What Is Qualitative Research, and What Are Some Examples?
What Are Hypotheses, and How Do They Fit Into the Scientific Method?
What Do Good Research Hypotheses Do?
Besides Looking at the Reputation of a Journal Where a Study Is Published as One Criterion for a Good Study, Are There Other Things That I Can Look To?
I Hear So Much About Different Studies�From the Newspaper, From Professional Bulletins, and Even From My Boss. What Am I Supposed to Believe, and How Can I Judge if the Results of a Study Are Useful?
What Are Some of the Best Ways to Find Information Online, and Where Are Some of the Best Places?
What Role Might Social Media Play in My Efforts as Both a Researcher and a Consumer?
Reviewing and Writing about your Research Question
What Is a Review of the Literature, and Why Is It Important?
How Does a Review of the Literature Have an Impact on My Research Question and the Hypothesis I Propose?
How Do I Know When My Literature Review Is Finished? Couldn't It Go on Forever?
What Are the Three Main Sources of Information, and What Part Does Each Play in Creating a Literature Review?
What Steps Should I Take in Writing My Review of Literature?
What Are Some of the Best Electronic Resources Available, and How Do I Learn to Use Them?
Introductory Ideas About Ethics
What Are Some of the More General and Important Principles of Ethical Research?
What Is Informed Consent, and What Does It Consist Of?
What Special Attention Should I Give to Ethical Concerns When Children or Special Populations Are Involved, and What Should the Parents or Legal Guardian Know?
What Are Some Examples of the Most Serious Ethical Lapses?
What Is an Institutional Review Board or IRB, and How Does It Work?
What Are the Important Elements of an IRB Application?
Research Methods: Knowing the Language, knowing the ideas
Why Do All These Questions and Answers on Research Methods Have Any Relevance for Me?
I Have So Many Ideas I Want to Study. How Can I Decide Which One Is Best?
In Beginning My Research Work, Can I Focus Just on One Tiny, Little, Narrow Topic or Reach for the Stars and Be Broad and General? And, I Know the Library Is a Terrific Place to Start My Research Work, but Do I Have to Visit the Bricks-and-Mortar Buildings on Campus or Can I Just Work Remotely?
What Is a Null Hypothesis, and Why Is It Important?
What Is a Research Hypothesis, and What Are the Different Types?
What Is Similar, and What Is Different, About a Null and a Research Hypothesis?
How Can I Create a Good Research Hypothesis?
What Is the "Gold Standard" of Research Methods?
Can You Help Me Understand Which Method Best Fits Which Type of Question Being Asked?
What Are the Different Types of Variables, and What Are They Used For?
What Is an Independent Variable, and How Is It Used in the Research Process?
What Is a Dependent Variable, and What Does the Researcher Need to Be Careful About When Selecting and Using Dependent Variables?
What Is the Relationship Between Independent and Dependent Variables?
In an Experiment, How Does the Notion of a Control and an Experimental Group Fit Into the Scientific Method?
Sampling Ideas And Issues
What Is the Difference Between a Sample and a Population, and Why Are Samples Important?
What Is the Purpose of Sampling, and What Might Go Wrong During the Process?
What Is Sampling Error, and Why Is It Important?
What Are Some of the Different Types of Sampling?
What Is Random Sampling, and Why Is It So Useful?
How Does Stratified Random Sampling Work, and When Should I Use It?
How Can I Be Sure That the Sample of Participants, Which Is Part of a Study, Accurately Represents a Larger Group of People for Whom Those Results Would Be Important?
I've Heard Quite a Bit About the Importance of Sample Size. What's That All About?
How Big of a Sample Is Big Enough?
How Important Is Big?
Describing Data using Descriptive Techniques
What Are Descriptive Statistics, and How Are They Used?
What Are Measures of Central Tendency, and How Are They Computed?
How Do I Decide Whether to Use the Mean, Mode, or Median as a Measure of Central Tendency?
What Are the Most Often Used Measures of Variability, and How Are They Computed?
How Do I Use the Mean and the Standard Deviation to Describe a Set of Data?
What Is a Normal Curve, and What Are Its Characteristics?
If a Distribution of Scores Is Not Normal (or Not Bell Shaped), How Can the Ideas on Which Inference Is Based Be Applied?
What Does It Mean When a Distribution Is Skewed?
I'm Looking for a Visual Way to Describe Data. What Are Some of My Choices?
What Is a Standard Score, and Why Is It Important?
What Are Some of the More Common Standard Scores, and How Are They Used?
All About Testing And Measuring
There is a Particular Outcome That I Want to Measure, but I Have No Idea Where I Can Find Out Whether or Not There Are Existing Measures. Where Do I Look to Find Suggestions as to What Dependent Variable I Should Use?
What Are the Different Levels of Measurement, and How Are They Used?
What Is Reliability?
What Are Some of the Different Types of Reliability and When Are They Used?
How Are Reliability Coefficients Interpreted?
What Are Some of the Different Types of Validity, and When Are They Used?
What Is Criterion Validity, and How Do the Two Types of Criterion Validity, Concurrent and Predictive, Differ?
What Is the Difference Between a Norm-Referenced and a Criterion-Referenced Test?
What Is Construct Validity, and Why Is It Especially Appropriate for Establishing the Validity of Psychological Tests?
How Are Different Types of Validity Established?
How Do Reliability and Validity Work Together?
How Can I Find Out If a Test Is Reliable and Valid?
What Are Some of the Different Types of Tests, and How Are They Used?
When It Comes to Measuring Attitude, What Is the Difference Between a Likert and a Thurstone Scale?
What Is Item Analysis, and How Is It Used in Evaluating Achievement Tests?
What Is a Percentile or a Percentile Rank?
What Is Adaptive Testing?
What Is the FairTest Movement, and What Are Its Basic Goals?
Where Do I Find a Collection of Tests From Which to Choose? And, How Do I Go About Selecting One?
Understanding Different Research methods
What Is an Experimental Design, and What Is the Difference Between the Major Types of Experimental Designs?
What Is a One-Shot Case Study, and What Are Some of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using This Design?
I Know What Correlational Research Methods Are. When and How Are They Used?
I Know That Correlations Reflect the Association Between Two Variables, but How Do I Interpret Them?
What Is an Example of a Quasi-Experimental Design, and When Is It Appropriate to Use It?
What Is Internal Validity, and Why Is It Important in Experimental Design?
What Is External Validity, and Why Is It Important in Experimental Design?
What Is the Trade-Off Between Internal and External Validity?
All About Inference And Significance
What Is Statistical Significance, and Why Is It Important?
In Research Reports, I Often See Entries Such as p = .042 and df(22) What Do They Mean?
How Do Statistical Programs Such as SPSS Display Significance Levels?
What Other Types of Errors Should Be Considered as Part of the Research Process?
What Is Power, and Why Is It Important?
What Are Some of the Other Popular Statistical Tests, and When Are They Used?
What Is Regression, and How Is It Used?
What Is the Difference Between a Parametric and a Nonparametric Test?
I Often See the Term "Statistical Significance" Being Used in Journal Articles. What Is It, and Why Is It Important?
How Can I Tell If an Outcome Is Statistically Significant?
What Is Effect Size?
What Is the Difference Between Statistical Significance and Meaningfulness?
Why Are the Values of .01 and .05 Usually Used as Conventional Levels of Statistical Significance?
Index

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