Criminal and Behavioral Profiling

ISBN-10: 1412983088
ISBN-13: 9781412983082
Edition: 2013
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Description: What is the job of a "criminal profiler" really like? We see these roles played out nightly on tv shows and in the news, but how does law enforcement today actually use empirical data to correctly assess behaviour and help solve crimes, particularly  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/29/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 368
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

What is the job of a "criminal profiler" really like? We see these roles played out nightly on tv shows and in the news, but how does law enforcement today actually use empirical data to correctly assess behaviour and help solve crimes, particularly serial crimes? Criminal and Behavioral Profiling, written by well-established authors Curt and Anne Bartol, presents a realistic and empirically-based look at the theory, research, and practice of modern criminal profiling, or, as it's more professionally termed, behavioural analysis or behavioural investigative analysis. Designed for use in a variety of criminal justice and psychology courses, the book delves into the process of identifying distinctive behavioural tendencies, geographical locations, demographic, and biographical descriptors of offenders, and personality traits, based on characteristics of the crime. Timely literature and case studies from the rapidly growing international research in criminal profiling help students understand the best practices, major pitfalls, and psychological concepts that are key to this process.

Curt R. Bartol was a college professor for more than 30 years, teaching a wide variety of both undergraduate and graduate courses, including Biopsychology, Criminal Behavior, Juvenile Delinquency, Introduction to Forensic Psychology, Social Psychology, and Psychology and Law. He earned his PhD in personality/social psychology from Northern Illinois University in 1972. He was instrumental in creating and launching Castleton State College's graduate program in forensic psychology and served as its director for 6 years. As a licensed clinical psychologist, he has been a consulting police psychologist to local, municipal, state, and federal law enforcement agencies for over 25 years. In addition to Criminal and Behavioral Profiling , he has written Introduction to Forensic Psychology (now in its 3rd ed.), Current Perspectives in Forensic Psychology and Criminal Justice (now in 3rd ed.), Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (now in its 9th ed.), Juvenile Delinquency and Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Perspective (3rd ed.), Delinquency and Justice: A Psychosocial Approach (2nd ed.) and Psychology and Law: Theory, Research, and Application (3rd ed.). He is the long-standing editor of SAGE's Criminal Justice and Behavior: An International Journal .

Anne M. Bartol earned an MA and a PhD in criminal justice from State University of New York at Albany. She also holds an MA in journalism from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She taught criminal justice, sociology, and journalism courses over a 20-year college teaching career and has worked as a journalist and a social worker in child and adolescent protective services In addition to editing Current Perspectives , she has co-authored Introduction to Forensic Psychology , Juvenile Delinquency , Psychology and Law , and Criminal Behavior . She has served as book review editor and managing editor of Criminal Justice and Behavior and has published articles on women and criminal justice, rural courts, and the history of forensic psychology.

Preface
Introduction
Early Accounts of Profiling
Origins of Modern Profiling
The Mad Bomber Case
Metesky and the Media
The Brussel Legacy
Barnum Statements
The Boston Strangler
The Five Areas of Behavioral Profiling
Crime Scene Profiling
Geographic Profiling
Psychological Profiling
Suspect-Based Profiling
Equivocal Death Analysis
Summary and Conclusions
Crime Scene Profiling
Early FBI Profiling Origins
The Behavioral Science Unit and the NCAVC
National Center for Analysis of Violent Crimes (NCAVC)
Two Seminal Articles
Profile Characteristics of Organized VS. Disorganized Offenders as Classified by the FBI in 1985
Crime Scene Differences Between Organized and Disorganized Offenders as Classified by the FBI
The Douglas and Ressler Interviews
Further Development of the O/D Dichotomy
The Crime Classification Manual
Cult Murder
Crime Scene Profiling Today
Profiling Terminology
Case Linkage
Additional Research on Crime Scene Profiling
Typologies and Profiling
Clinical Versus Actuarial Profiling
Training and Characteristics of Profilers
Accuracy and Usefulness of Crime Scene Profiles
Will New Advances Make Profiling Obsolete?
The Psychological and Cognitive Pitfalls of Crime Scene Profiling
Memory and Cognitive Biases
Confirmation Bias
Self-Serving Bias
Fundamental Attribution Error
Summary and Conclusions
Scientific Approaches to Crime Scene Profiling
Misconceptions About Profiling
Misconceptions and Reality with Respect to Profiling
Making the Case for Scientific Profiling
The Beginnings of Scientific Crime Scene Profiling
Origins of Investigative Psychology
Searching for the Railway Rapist
Investigative Psychology Today
Clinical Versus Actuarial Profiling Revisited
Police Psychology Versus Profiling
Research Questions
The Behavioral Features
Distinguishing Between Offenders and Crimes
Inferring Characteristics
Linking Crimes
The Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System (VICLAS)
Psychological Signatures
The Person-Situation Debate
The A → C Equation
What's in a Profile Report?
Behavioral Investigative Analysts in the United Kingdom
Contemporary Theories in Criminology
Implications of Crime Theories for Profiling
Developmental Pathways in Offending Patterns
Application to Profiling
Developmental and Maturation Changes in Offenders
Application to Profiling
Deficient Interpersonal Skills and Peer Rejection
Application to Profiling
Offending Patterns of Criminal Psychopaths
Application to Profiling
Potential Error Problems in Scientific Profiling
Heuristics
Representative Heuristic Errors
Base Rate Fallacy (or Neglect)
Expressions of Uncertainty
Summary and Conclusions
Geographic Profiling and Mapping
Geographic Mapping
Crime Map of Auto Theft Incidents in an Urban Area
History of Crime Mapping
Influences of Environmental Criminology
Contemporary Crime Mapping
Geographic Profiling
Computer-Generated Geographic Profile Map
Theoretical Foundations and Early History
Routine Activity Theory
Awareness Space Paths
Rational Choice Theory
History of Geographic Profiling
Geographic Profiling Software
Measures of Accuracy
Illustration of Profile Error Distance
Key Concepts in Geographic Profiling
Distance Decay
Distance Decay
Illustration of Buffer Zone
Mental Maps
The Circle or Centrality Theory
Centrality Offending Pattern of Serial Rapist
Marauder and Commuter Offending Patterns
Windshield Wiper Effect
Geographic Hunting Patterns
The Basic Assumptions of Geographic Profiling
Case Linkage
Linkage as a Function of Multiple Offenses
Relatively Even Distribution or Wide Dispersion of Offenses
Single, Stable Base of Operations
Relatively Short Time Interval Between Offenses
Crime Series Must Occur Continuously Over Time
ATF Criminal And Geographic Profiling Program
Recent Research on Geographic Profiling
Simple Heuristics May Be Better Than Computer Programs
Mean Error Distance (MM) After Baseline and Retest for the Control, Circle, and Decay Groups, and Crimestat
Computer Models Try to Get Better Through Bayesian Methods
Summary and Conclusions
Profiling Applied to Specific Crimes
Profiling in Child Abduction Cases
The Numbers
Card Teams
AMBER Alert
The Victims
The Offenders
Profiling in Serial Murder Cases
The Numbers
The Victims
The Offenders
Criminal Background
The FBI Serial Murder Symposium
Serial Killer Typologies
The Holmes-DeBurger Serial Killer Typology
Role of the Victim
Profiling in Serial Rape Cases
The Numbers
The Victims
Victim Selection
False Allegations
The Offenders
The Massachusetts Treatment Center Classification System
Massachusetts Treatment Center Classification System
Opportunistic Rapists (Types 1 and 2)
Pervasively Angry Rapists (Type 3)
Sexually Motivated, Sadistic Rapists (Types 4 and 5)
Sexually Motivated, Nonsadistic Rapists (Types 6 and 7)
Vindictive Rapists (Types 8 and 9)
Canter's Levels of Violation and Themes of Rape
Profiling in Serial Arson Cases
The Numbers
The Victims
The Offenders
Firefighter Arson
Fire Investigator-Turned-Arsonist
Juvenile Firesetters
Serial Arsonists
Four Themes of Arson
Pyromania
Profiling Serial Burglars
The Numbers
The Offenders
The Four Themes of Burglary
Pilferers
Raiders
Intruders
Invaders
Summary and Conclusions
Psychological Profiling: A Focus on Threat and Risk Assessment
A Brief History of Psychological Profiling
Threat Assessment
Threat Assessment and School Violence
Profiling School Shooters
Early Warning Signs of Violence
The Safe School Initiative (SSI)
School Threat Assessment Teams
Prediction Table
Adult School Shooters
Decision Tree for Student Threat Assessment
Psychological Characteristics of Student School Shooters
Workplace Violence
Statistics on Serious Workplace Violence
Categories of Workplace Violence
The Warning Signs
Employee Warning Signs of Potential Workplace Violence
Behaviors and Characteristics That May Predict Workplace Violence
Violence Risk Assessment
Dynamic and Static Risk Factors in Prediction
Stalking
Prevalence
Risk Assessment of Stalking Violence
Stalking Typologies
The RECON Typology
Recon Typology
The Mullen et al. Typology
When Does Stalking Usually Stop?
Current Research in the Development of Risk Assessment of Stalkers
Summary and Conclusions
Suspect-Based Profiling
Racial Profiling
The Drug Courier Profile
Terrorism
Who Are the Terrorists?
Profiling Terrorists
Lone Wolf Terrorists
Summary
Passenger Profiling
Early Attempts at Passenger Profiling in the 1970s
Suspect-Based Profiling Based on Behavioral Patterns
CAPPS and CAPPS II
Secure Flight
Terrorist Screening Database (TSDB)
Behavioral Observation Techniques to Detect Suspicious Passengers
Screening of Passenger by Observation Technique (SPOT)
Future Attribute Screening Technology (FAST)
Detecting Deception
Police Investigators' Ability to Detect Deception
Promising Approaches to Detecting Deception
Detection of Intent
New Approaches to Detecting Deception
Thermal Imaging
Voice Stress Technologies
Summary and Conclusions
Reconstructive Psychological Evaluation: The Psychological Autopsy
The USS Iowa Case
The Psychological Autopsy
Vincent Walker Foster JR. Case: Death Near the Capitol
Purposes of Psychological Autopsies
Research With Psychological Autopsies
Clinical Practice Applications of Psychological Autopsies
Psychological Autopsies in Legal Cases
Psychological Autopsies and the Military
Suicide by Cop
Autoerotic Asphyxia
The Choking Game
How Psychological Autopsies Are Performed
Operational Criteria for Classification of Suicide
Classification of Suicides by Intent
The Investigative Value of Suicide Notes
Evaluating the Psychological Autopsy
Standardization
Reliability and Validity
Summary and Conclusions
Profiling in Court
Paths to Admission of Evidence
Standards for Admission of Expert Testimony
The Frye General Acceptance Rule
Illustration of Ohio Court State System
Illustration of Federal Court System, United States
The Daubert Trilogy
Frye and Daubert Summary
Profiling as Expert Evidence
Rachel Nickell's Case: "The Bane of Our Lives"
Profiling-Related Criminal Cases
Profiling Credentials
Consultant VS. Consultant: The Sheppard Case
From the Prison Cell: The Drake Case
Crime Scene Profiling in the Courtroom
Linkage Analysis in the Courtroom
The Pennell Case
The Fortin Case
Motivations of Offenders and Psychological Characteristics
The Masters Case
The Psychological Autopsy
Ultimate Issue Testimony
Summary and Conclusions
References
Photo Credits
Index
About the Authors

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