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Work in the 21st Century An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology

ISBN-10: 1405190256
ISBN-13: 9781405190251
Edition: 3rd 2009
List price: $39.99
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Book details

List price: $39.99
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 8/21/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 816
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.564
Language: English

Preface
Fundamentals
What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
The Importance of I-O Psychology
The Importance of Work in People's Lives
The Concept of "Good Work"
Authenticity: A Trend of Interest to I-O Psychologists
How Does I-O Psychology Contribute to Society?
What Is I-O Psychology?
SIOP as a Resource
How This Course Can Help You
The Importance of Understanding the Younger Worker
The Past, Present, and Future of I-O Psychology
The Past: A Brief History of I-O Psychology
1876-1930
1930-1964
The Present: The Demographics of I-O Psychologists
Pathways to a Career in I-O Psychology: A Curious Mixture
What We Call Ourselves
The Future: The Challenges to I-O Psychology in the 21st Century
A Personal View of the Future: Preparing for a Career in I-O Psychology
Education and Training
Getting into a Graduate Program
Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O Psychology
The Multicultural Nature of Life in the 21st Century
Cross-National Issues at the Workplace
Why Should Multiculturalism Be Important to You?
Why Is Multiculturalism Important for I-O Psychology?
Some Theories of Cultural Influence
Hofstede's Theory
Some Thoughts on Theories of Cultural Influence
The Organization of This Book
Themes
Parts
Resources
Case Study 1.1
Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology
Science
What Is Science?
The Role of Science in Society
Why Do I-O Psychologists Engage in Research?
Research
Research Design
Methods of Data Collection
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
The Importance of Context in Interpreting Research
Generalizability and Control in Research
Generalizability
Case Study 2.1
Control
Ethical Behavior in I-O Psychology
Data Analysis
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Statistical Significance
The Concept of Statistical Power
Correlation and Regression
The Concept of Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Multiple Correlation
Correlation and Causation
Meta-Analysis
Micro-, Macro-, and Meso-Research
Interpretation
Reliability
Test-Retest Reliability
Equivalent Forms Reliability
Internal Consistency
Inter-Rater Reliability
Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
Content-Related Validity
Construct-Related Validity
Validity and the Law: A Mixed Blessing
Industrial Psychology
Individual Differences and Assessment
An Introduction to Individual Differences
Some Background
Differential Psychology, Psychometrics, and I-O Psychology
Identifying Individual Differences
Varieties of Individual Differences
Human Attributes
Abilities
Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence as "g"
Is "g" Important at Work?
Is "g" as Important in Other Countries as It Is in the United States?
Can Your Level of "g" Change?
The Issue of Retesting and Cognitive Ability
Specific Cognitive Abilities beyond "g"
Physical, Sensory, and Psychomotor Abilities
Physical Abilities
Sensory Abilities
Psychomotor Abilities
Personality and Work Behavior
The Big Five and Other Models of Personality
Case Study 3.1
Implications of Broad Personality Models
Personality Change over the Life Span
Additional Attributes
Skills
Knowledge
Competencies
Emotional Intelligence
Foundations of Assessment
The Past and the Present of Testing
What Is a Test?
What Is the Meaning of a Test Score?
Test Users and Test Interpretation
What Is a Test Battery?
Where to Find Tests
Administrative Test Categories
Speed versus Power Tests
Group versus Individual Tests
Paper and Pencil versus Performance Tests
Testing and Culture
International Assessment Practices
Assessment Procedures
Assessment Content versus Process
Assessment Procedures: Content
Cognitive Ability Tests
Knowledge Tests
Tests of Physical Abilities
Psychomotor Abilities
Personality
Practical Issues Associated with Personality Measures
Integrity Testing
Emotional Intelligence
Individual Assessment
Interviews
Interview Content
Interview Process
Assessment Centers
Work Samples and Situational Tests
Work Sample Tests
Situational Judgment Tests
Special Topics in Assessment
Incremental Validity
Biographical Data
Grades and Letters of Recommendation
Minimum Qualifications
Useless Assessment Practices: Graphology and the Polygraph
Drug and Alcohol Testing
Computer-Based and Internet Assessment
Unproctored Internet Testing
Who Is a Candidate?
Computer Adaptive Testing
Testing and Demographic Differences
Job Analysis and Performance
A Basic Model of Performance
Campbell's Model of Job Performance
Typical versus Maximum Performance
Criterion Deficiency and Contamination
A Broader View
Extensions of the Basic Performance Model
Task Performance versus Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Causes and Correlates of OCB
The Dark Side of Performance: Counterproductive Work Behaviors
Causes of and Treatments for CWB
OCB and CWB: Two Ends of the Same Continuum?
Proactive Work Behavior
Adaptive Performance
A Brief Recap
A Comprehensive Framework for Considering Performance: The "Great Eight"
The Case of Expert Performance
Types of Performance Measures
Job Analysis: Fundamental Properties and Practices
The Uses of Job Analysis Information
A Brief History of Job Analysis
Types of Job Analysis
How Job Analysis Is Done
Job Analysis: Newer Developments
Electronic Performance Monitoring as Part of a Job Analysis
Cognitive Task Analysis
The Context of Work
Personality-Based Job Analysis
A Summary of the Job Analysis Process
Computer-Based Job Analysis
O*NET
Competency Modeling
Job Evaluation and the Law
Job Evaluation
The Concept of Comparable Worth
Job Analysis and Employment Litigation
Basic Concepts in Performance Measurement
Uses for Performance Information
Relationships among Performance Measures
Hands-On Performance Measures
Electronic Performance Monitoring
Performance Management
Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Measurement
Performance Rating-Substance
Close-Up on a Rating System
Theories of Performance Ratings
Focus on Performance Ratings
Overall Performance Ratings
Trait Ratings
Task-Based Ratings
Critical Incidents Methods
OCB and Adaptive Performance Ratings
Structural Characteristics of a Performance Rating Scale
Rating Formats
Graphic Rating Scales
Checklists
Behavioral Rating
Employee Comparison Methods
A New Variation on the Paired Comparison Method: CARS
Concluding Thoughts on Performance Rating Formats
Performance Rating-Process
Rating Sources
Supervisors
Peers
Self-Ratings
Subordinate Ratings
Customer and Supplier Ratings
360 Degree Systems
Rating Distortions
Central Tendency Error
Leniency-Severity Error
Halo Error
Rater Training
Administrative Training
Psychometric Training
Frame-of-Reference Training
The Reliability and Validity of Ratings
Reliability
Validity
The Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation
The Motivation to Rate
Goal Conflict
Performance Feedback
"Destructive" Criticism
360 Degree Feedback
Performance Evaluation and Culture
Performance Evaluation and the Law
Performance Evaluation and Protected Groups
Staffing Decisions
Conceptual Issues in Staffing
An Introduction to the Staffing Process
The Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance
Stakeholders in the Staffing Process
Line Managers
Co-workers
Applicants
Staffing from the International Perspective
Evaluation of Staffing Outcomes
Validity
Selection Ratios
Prediction Errors and Cut Scores
Establishing Cut Scores
Utility
Til Death Us Do Part? The Concept of Dynamic Validities
Fairness
Practical Issues in Staffing
A Staffing Model
Comprehensive Selection Systems
Compensatory Selection Systems
Combining Information
Statistical versus Clinical Decision Making
The Hurdle System of Combining Scores
Combining Scores by Regression (The Compensatory Approach)
Score Banding
Subgroup Norming
Selection versus Placement
Deselection
Number of Decisions to Be Made
Large Staffing Projects
Small Staffing Projects
21st- Century Staffing
Legal Issues in Staffing Decisions
Charges of Employment Discrimination
Employment Discrimination Outside of the United States
Theories of Discrimination
Intentional Discrimination or Adverse Treatment
Unintentional Discrimination or Adverse Impact
Case Study 6.1
Training and Development
Foundations of Training and Learning
Training, Learning, and Performance
Training Needs Analysis
The Learning Process in Training
Trainee Characteristics
Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training
Principles of Learning
Learning Organizations
Content and Methods of Training
Training Methods
On-Site Training Methods
Off-Site Training Methods
Distance Learning and Computer-Based Training
Training "Critical Thinking"
Transfer of Training
Evaluating Training Programs
Training Evaluation
Training Criteria
Utility Analysis
Training Evaluation Designs
Equal Employment Opportunity Issues in Training
Specialized Training Programs
Management and Leadership Development
Assessment Centers
360 Degree Feedback
Coaching
Informal Training
Sexual Harassment Awareness Training
Ethics Training
Cross-Cultural Training
Organizational Psychology
The Motivation to Work
An Introduction to Motivation
The Central Position of Motivation in Psychology
A Brief History of Motivation Theory in I-O Psychology
Metaphors for Motivation
Person as Machine
Person as Scientist
The Meaning and Importance of Motivation in the Workplace
Motivation and Performance
Motivation and Work-Life Balance
Motivation and Attitudes
Motivation and Personality
Motivational Theories-Classic Approaches
"Person as Machine" Theories
An Internal Mechanical Theory: Maslow's Need Theory
An External Mechanical Theory: Reinforcement Theory
"Person as Scientist" Theories
Vroom's VIE Theory
Equity Theory
Modern Approaches to Work Motivation
Person-as-Intentional Approaches
Goal-Setting Theory
Control Theories and the Concept of Self-Regulation
The Concept of Self-Efficacy in Modern Motivation Theory
Action Theory
Common Themes in Modern Approaches
A New Motivational Topic: The Entrepreneur
Practical Issues in Motivation
Can Motivation Be Measured?
Cross-Cultural Issues in Motivation
Generational Differences and Work Motivation
Motivational Interventions
Contingent Rewards
Job Enrichment
ProMES
Attitudes, Emotions, and Work
Job Satisfaction
The Experience of Emotion at Work
Job Satisfaction: Some History
The Early Period of Job Satisfaction Research
An Evolution
Antecedents and Consequences of Job Satisfaction
The Measurement of Job Satisfaction
Overall versus Facet Satisfaction
Satisfaction Questionnaires
The Concept of Commitment
Forms of Commitment
Individual Difference Variables and Commitment
A New Focus: Organizational Identification
Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior
Is Everybody Happy? Does It Matter If They Are?
The Concept of "Resigned" Work Satisfaction
Satisfaction versus Mood versus Emotion
Dispositions and Affectivity
The Time Course of Emotional Experience
Genetics and Job Satisfaction
The Concept of Core Self-Evaluations
Withdrawal Behaviors
Special Topics Related to Attitudes and Emotions
Job Loss
Telecommuting
Work-Family Balance
Psychological Contracts
Work-Related Attitudes and Emotions from the Cross-Cultural Perspective
Stress and Worker Well-Being
The Problem of Stress
Studying Workplace Stress
What Is a Stressor?
Common Stressors at Work
Physical/Task Stressors
Psychological Stressors
Consequences of Stress
Behavioral Consequences of Stress
Psychological Consequences of Stress
Physiological Consequences of Stress
Work Schedules
Shift Work
Flexible and Compressed Workweek Schedules
Theories of Stress
Demand-Control Model
Person-Environment Fit Model
Individual Differences in Resistance to Stress
The Type A Behavior Pattern
Reducing and Managing Stress
Primary Prevention Strategies
Work and Job Design
Cognitive Restructuring
Secondary Prevention Strategies
Stress Management Training
Relaxation and Biofeedback Techniques
Social Support
Tertiary Prevention Strategies
Summary of Stress Intervention Strategies
Future Work Trends and Challenges to Stress and Stress Management
Violence at Work
Stress and Workplace Violence
Levels of Violence
The Experiential Sequence of Violence
The "Typical" Violent Worker
Theories of Workplace Violence
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
The "Justice" Hypothesis
A Special Type of Violence: Bullying
What Can We Conclude about Workplace Violence?
Fairness and Diversity in the Workplace
Fairness
The Concept of Justice
Justice, Fairness, and Trust
Approaches to Organizational Justice
Distributive Justice
Procedural Justice
Interactional Justice
Deontic Justice
Justice versus Injustice
The Practical Implications of Justice Perceptions
Performance Evaluation
Applicant Perceptions of Selection Fairness
A Special Case of Applicant Reactions: Stereotype Threat
A Model of Applicant Decision Making
The Special Case of Affirmative Action
Culture and Affirmative Action Programs
Diversity
What Does Diversity Mean?
The Dynamics of Diversity
Group and Multicultural Diversity
Managing Diversity from the Organizational Perspective
Leadership and Diversity
Leadership
The Concept of Leadership
Some Conceptual Distinctions
Leader Emergence versus Leadership Effectiveness
Leader Emergence
The Problem of Defining Leadership Outcomes
Negative Leadership Outcomes: The Destructive Leader
Leader versus Manager or Supervisor
The Blending of Managerial and Leadership Roles
Leader Development versus Leadership Development
The Motivation to Lead
Traditional Theories of Leadership
The "Great Man" Theories
The Trait Approach
The "Power" Approach to Leadership
The Behavioral Approach
The Ohio State University Studies
The University of Michigan Studies
The Contingency Approach
The Consequences of Participation: The Vroom-Yetton Model
New Approaches to Leadership
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
Transformational Leadership
Authentic Leadership
The Charismatic Leader
Emerging Topics and Challenges in Leadership Research
Leadership in a Changing Workplace
Male and Female Leaders: Are They Different?
The Demographics of Leadership
The Leadership Styles of Men and Women
Personality and Leadership
Cross-Cultural Studies of Leadership
Leadership in a Diverse Environment
Guidelines for Effective Leadership
Teams in Organizations
Types of Teams
Groups and Teams: Definitions
Types of Teams
Quality Circles
Project Teams
Production Teams
Virtual Teams
Input-Process-Output Model of Team Effectiveness
Team Inputs
Organizational Context
Team Task
Team Composition
Team Diversity
Team Processes
Norms
Communication and Coordination
Cohesion
Decision Making
Team Outputs
Special Issues in Teams
Team Appraisal and Feedback
ProMES
Team Roles
Team Development
Team Training
Cultural Issues in Teams
The Organization of Work Behavior
The Conceptual and Theoretical Foundations of Organizations
Organizations and People
Organization as Integration
Theories of Organization
Classic Organizational Theory
Human Relations Theory
Contingency Theories
Systems Theory
Conclusions about Theories of Organization
Some Social Dynamics of Organizations
Climate and Culture
A Brief History of Climate and Culture
An Integration of Concepts
A New Avenue for Exploration: Climate and Culture Strength
Organizational Climate and Culture from the Multicultural Perspective
When Cultures Clash
An Application of Culture and Climate: Safety
The Role of Leaders in Safety
Safety Climate and Culture
Socialization and the Concept of Person-Organization (P-O) and Person-Job (P-J) Fit
Organizational Socialization
Positive Consequences of Socialization
Socialization and National Culture
Socialization and Person-Organization Fit Models
Organizational Development and Change
Organizational Change
Episodic Change
Continuous Change
Resistance to Change
Examples of Large-Scale Organizational Change Initiatives
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Six Sigma Systems
Lean Production Manufacturing
Management by Objectives, Matrix Organizations, and Mergers and Acquisitions
Emerging Commonalities among Organizational Interventions
Glossary
References
Credits
Name Index
Subject Index

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