Quantitative Analysis in Archaeology

ISBN-10: 1405189509
ISBN-13: 9781405189507
Edition: 2010
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Book details

Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 11/26/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 376
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.650
Language: English

Richard J. Ladle was the founding Director of Oxford University's MSc in Biodiversity, Conservation and Management. Since 2009 he has been working in Brazil as an international conservation consultant and science writer. He is currently a Visiting Professor at the Federal University of Alagoas, teaching and doing research on diverse and interdisciplinary aspects of conservation, biogeography and ecology.Robert J. Whittaker is the current Academic Director of the MSc Biodiversity Conservation and Management, and holds the title of Professor of Biogeography in the School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford. He is a founding member and past President (2009-2010) of the International Biogeography Society. He is currently editor-in-chief of the Journal of Biogeography. He has a long-standing interest in island biogeography, patterns and processes controlling diversity, and the application of biogeography to conservation.Todd L. VanPool is Assistant Professor at the Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia. He is the co-author with Christine S. VanPool of Signs of the Casas Grandes Shamans (2007), Religion in the Prehispanic Southwest (2006) and Essential Tensions in Archaeological Method and Theory (2003).Robert D. Leonard is retired from the Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, where he taught for 17 years. He is currently the co-owner and a project director of Human Inquiry, a consulting firm that uses an interdisciplinary anthropological approach to help improve building designs.

List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Equations
Acknowledgments
Quantifying Archaeology
Data
Scales of Measurement
Nominal level measurement
Ordinal level measurement
Interval level measurement
Ratio level measurement
The relationship among the scales of measurement
Validity
Accuracy and Precision
Populations and Samples
Characterizing Data Visually
Frequency Distributions
Histograms
Stem and Leaf Diagrams
Ogives (Cumulative Frequency Distributions)
Describing a Distribution
Bar Charts
Displaying Data like a Pro
Archaeology and Exploratory Data Analysis
Characterizing Data Numerically: Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Which measure of location is best?
Measures of Dispersion
Range
Interquartile range
Variance and standard deviation
Calculating Estimates of the Mean and Standard Deviation
Coefficients of Variation
Box Plots
Characterizing Nominal and Ordinal Scale Data
Index of dispersion for nominal data and the index of qualitative variation
An Introduction to Probability
Theoretical Determinations of Probability
Empirical Determinations of Probability
Complex Events
Using Probability to Determine Likelihood
The Binomial Distribution
The psychic's trick
Simplifying the binomial
Probability in Archaeological Contexts
Putting Statistics to Work: The Normal Distribution
Hypothesis Testing I: An Introduction
Hypotheses of Interest
Formal Hypothesis Testing and the Null Hypothesis
Errors in Hypothesis Testing
Hypothesis Testing II: Confidence Limits, the t-Distribution, and One-Tailed Tests
Standard Error
Comparing Sample Means to �
Statistical Inference and Confidence Limits
The t-Distribution
Degrees of freedom and the t-distribution
Hypothesis Testing Using the t-Distribution
Testing One-Tailed Null Hypotheses
Hypothesis Testing III: Power
Calculating �
Statistical Power
Increasing the power of a test
Calculating Power: An Archaeological Example
Power Curves
Putting it all Together: A Final Overview of Hypothesis Testing
Steps to hypothesis testing
Evaluating common hypotheses
Analysis of Variance and the F-Distribution
Model II ANOVA: Identifying the Impacts of Random Effects
Model I ANOVA: The Analysis of Treatment Effects
A Final Summary of Model I and Model II ANOVA
ANOVA Calculation Procedure
Identifying the Sources of Significant Variation in Model I and Model II ANOVA
Comparing Variances
Linear Regression and Multivariate Analysis
Constructing a Regression Equation
Evaluating the Statistical Significance of Regression
Using Regression Analysis to Predict Values
Placing confidence intervals around the regression coefficient
Confidence Limits around Y for a Given X<sub>i</sub>
Estimating X from Y
The Analysis of Residuals
Some Final Thoughts about Regression
Selecting the right regression model
Do not extrapolate beyond the boundaries of the observed data
Use the right methods when creating reverse predictions
Be aware of the assumptions for regression analysis
You may be able to transform your data to create a linear relationship from a curvilinear relationship
Use the right confidence limits
Correlation
Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
The assumptions of Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient
Spearman's Rank Order Correlation Coefficient
Some Final Thoughts (and Warnings) about Correlation
Analysis of Frequencies
Determining the Source of Variation in a Chi-Square Matrix
Assumptions of Chi-Square Analysis
The Analysis of Small Samples Using Fisher's Exact Test and Yate's Continuity Correction
The Median Test
An Abbreviated Introduction to Nonparametric and Multivariate Analysis
Nonparametric Tests Comparing Groups
Wilcoxon two-sample test
Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric ANOVA
Multivariate Analysis and the Comparison of Means
A review of pertinent conceptual issues
Two-way ANOVA
Nested ANOVA
Factor Analysis and Principal Component Analysis
Objectives of Principal Component and Factor Analysis
Designing the Principal Component/Factor Analysis
Assumptions and Conceptual Considerations of Factor Analysis
An Example of Factor Analysis
Factor Analysis vs. Principal Component Analysis
Sampling, Research Designs, and the Archaeological Record
How to Select a Sample
How Big a Sample is Necessary?
Some Concluding Thoughts
References
Areas under a Standardized Normal Distribution
Critical Values for the Student's t-Distribution
Critical Values for the F-Distribution
Critical Values for the Chi-Square Distribution
Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Two-Sample U-Test
Index

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