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From Ideologies to Public Philosophies An Introduction to Political Theory

ISBN-10: 1405168358
ISBN-13: 9781405168359
Edition: 2008
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Description: From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory provides a comprehensive and systematic account of the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries-along with contemporary and emerging outlooks-to address the essential  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/14/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 504
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

From Ideologies to Public Philosophies: An Introduction to Political Theory provides a comprehensive and systematic account of the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries-along with contemporary and emerging outlooks-to address the essential questions of political theory. Explores the major ideologies of the 19th and 20th centuries while making clear distinctions for the reader between often-confused interpretations of ideologies Engaging "reader friendly" style will appeal to students and facilitate sophisticated discussions Develops and defends pluralism as a broad public policy that is accepted by diverse political groups

Preface
Constructing Our Public Philosophies
Public Philosophies and Political Ideologies
Political Theory
Searching for an Underlying Consensus Within Pluralism
Ideas Beyond the Underlying Consensus of Pluralism
Conclusions
Participants in our Political Conversations
Voices from the Major Ideologies of the Nineteenth Century
Classical Liberalism: Building Democratic Capitalism
Traditional Conservatism: Defending the Old Social Order
Anarchism: Rebelling Against Authority
Marxism: Pursuing a Classless Society
Conclusions
Prominent Totalitarian and Pluralist Voices of the Twentieth Century
Communism: Fighting Imperialism in Developing Societies
Fascism and Nazism: Totalitarian Control to Strengthen the Collective
Contemporary Liberalism: Reforming Capitalism and Democracy
Contemporary Conservatism: Opposing Liberal and Socialist Programs
Conclusions
Radical and Extreme Voices in Contemporary Politics
The Radical Left: Seeking More Egalitarian and Communal Societies
The Radical Right: Seeking More Economic Freedom or Moral Consensus
The Extreme Right: Returning to More Homogeneous Societies
The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Global Neoliberalism
Conclusions
Philosophical Assumptions: Their Importance as Foundations for Political Principles
Questions of Ontology
Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing the "Great Chain of Being"
Classical Liberals: Deism, Naturalism, and Materialism
Anarchists: Natural Interconnections, Ideas, and Conflicts
Marxists: Economic Determinism
Communists: Revising Dialectical Materialism
Fascists and Nazis: Heroic Will and Racial Struggle
Contemporary Liberals: Deemphasizing Ontology and Embracing Contingency
Contemporary Conservatives: Appreciating the World As It Is
The Radical Right: Refuting Charges of Economic and Divine Determination
The Extreme Right: Expecting a Divine Apocalypse
The Radical Left: Tempering Material Forces with Socialist Ideals
The Extreme Left: Releasing Human Imagination, Constrained by Ecological Limits
Conclusions
Questions of Human Nature
Classical Liberals: Humans as Equal and Rational Pursuers of Happiness
Traditional Conservatives: Defining Humans by their Places in Society
Anarchists: Seeing Human Altruism as Hindered by Conventional Institutions
Marxists: Conceiving Humans as Creative Laborers
Communists: Creating a "New Man"
Fascists and Nazis: Energizing the Will of "the Herd"
Contemporary Liberals: Fostering Autonomy, Reason, and Moral Development
The Radical Left: Stressing our Common Humanity and Individual Differences
Contemporary Conservatives: Accepting Human Imperfection
The Radical Right: Embedding Humans in Moral Communities and/or Free Markets
The Extreme Right: Regarding Humans as either Good or Evil
The Extreme Left: Rejecting an Essential Human Nature
Conclusions
Questions of Society
Classical Liberals: Individuals Seeking Mutual Benefits Through a Social Contract
Traditional Conservatives: Organic Societies that Come Before Individuals
Anarchists: Natural Societies Built on Friendship
Marxists: Transforming Class-Based Societies into Classless Ones
Communists: Non-Proletarian Contributions to a Classless Society
Fascists and Nazis: Defining Society in Nationalist and Racist Terms
Contemporary Liberals: Promoting Social Pluralism
Contemporary Conservatives: Seeing Society as a Delicate Watch
The Radical Right: Holding either Communitarian or Libertarian Visions of Society
The Radical Left: Searching for More Communal and Egalitarian Societies
The Extreme Right: Seeking Homogeneous Societies
The Extreme Left: Longing for Societies of "Singularities Pursuing the Common"
Conclusions
Questions of Epistemology
Classical Liberals: Moving from Natural Rights to Utilitarianism
Traditional Conservatives: Doubting Reason, Stressing Conventional Wisdom
Anarchists: Depending on a Vision of Human and Social Possibility
Marxists: A Science Showing the Inevitability, not the Goodness, of Communism
Communists: Generating Truths from Authoritative Readings of Marx
Fascists and Nazis: Finding Absolute Truth in the Intuitions of a Political Leader
Contemporary Liberals: Emphasizing Pragmatism
Contemporary Conservatives: Using a Social Science of Political Failure
The Radical Right: Finding Meaning in Tradition and Truth through Science
The Radical Left: Emphasizing Political Rationality
The Extreme Right: Finding Truth in Authoritative Texts and Leaders
The Extreme Left: Contesting and Deconstructing all Truths
Conclusions
The Great Issues of Politics: Consensual and Contested Principles
Questions of Community
Classical Liberals: Presupposing the Primacy of Nations
Traditional Conservatives: Patriots Lacking Nationalist Fervor
Anarchists: Rejecting Conventional Communities While Seeking Natural Ones
Marxists: Identifying with the Working Class and Eventually Humanity
Communists: Fighting Imperialism Through Nationalist Appeals
Fascists and Nazis: Embracing a Unified Nation and an Aryan State
Contemporary Liberals: Nations Built on Individual and Group Differences
Contemporary Conservatives: Seeking Moral, but not Communitarian, Countries
The Radical Right: Competing Global, National, and Sub-National Loyalties
The Radical Left: Pursuing Solidarity Among Diverse People in Many Polities
The Extreme Right: Rejecting Multiple Community Identities
The Extreme Left: Deconstructing Current Identities
Conclusions
Questions of Citizenship
Classical Liberals: Curbing Citizenship, Providing Limited Rights and Obligations
Traditional Conservatives: Stressing Loyalty and Obedience to Authorities
Anarchists: Comrades Without Political Obligations
Marxists: Transforming Alienated Workers into Public-Spirited Comrades
Communists: Transforming Oppressed People into Obedient Revolutionaries
Fascists and Nazis: Mobilizing Dutiful Citizens for Purposes of State
Contemporary Liberals: Pursuing Inclusion and Expanding Rights
Contemporary Conservatives: Developing More Responsible Citizens
The Radical Right: Privileging Property Rights and Instilling Virtue
The Radical Left: Embracing Multiple and Deep Citizenships
The Extreme Right: Restricting Citizenship
The Extreme Left: Changing Passive Citizens into Contentious Ones
Conclusions
Questions of Structure
Classical Liberals: Designing Free Markets and Representative Democracies
Traditional Conservatives: Emphasizing Civil Society and Cultural Norms
Anarchists: Rejecting All Conventional Structures
Marxists: Stressing the Oppression of Capitalism
Communists: Emphasizing Party Organizations
Fascists and Nazis: Empowering Totalitarian States
Contemporary Liberals: Balancing and Integrating Government and Capitalism
Contemporary Conservatives: Reining in Strong States
The Radical Right: More Freedom in The Marketplace and Less Cultural Freedom
The Radical Left: Pursuing Market Socialism and Democratic Cultures
The Extreme Right: Seeking Theocracies
The Extreme Left: Fighting Globalization and Other Forms of Domination
Conclusions
Questions of Rulers
Classical Liberals: Empowering Representatives While Holding Them Accountable
Traditional Conservatives: Finding a Place for Elitism Within Democracy
Anarchists: Rejecting All Rulers
Marxists: The Need for a Temporary Dictatorship of the Proletariat
Communists: The Need for a Vanguard of the Proletariat
Fascists and Nazis: Concentrating Power in the Hands of a Single Ruler
Contemporary Liberals: More Representative and Responsive Democracies
The Radical Left: More Inclusive and Participatory Democracies
Contemporary Conservatives: More Formal Representative Democracy
The Radical Right: Democracy as Freedom
The Extreme Right: Imagining Conspiracies
The Extreme Left: Seeing Formidable Obstacles to Radical and Global Democracy
Conclusions
Questions of Authority
Classical Liberals: Authorizing Limited Governments that Secure (Property) Rights
Traditional Conservatives: Orchestrating Social Harmony
Anarchists: Rejecting All Governmental Authority
Marxists: Authority As Oppressive, Then Necessary, and Finally Eliminated
Communists: Justifying Massive Authority as a Means to Abolish the State
Fascists and Nazis: Embracing Totalitarian State Authority
Contemporary Liberalism: From Limited Government to a Strong State
Contemporary Conservatives: Limiting the Activity of Governments
The Radical Right: Starving Government While Imposing Social Regulations
The Radical Left: Enhancing the Public Sphere
The Extreme Right: Resisting Authority that Disregards Sacred Texts
The Extreme Left: Contesting Governmental Authority
Conclusions
Questions of Justice
Classical Liberals: Equal Dignity but Unequal Rewards
Traditional Conservatives: Unequal Rights but Commensurate Responsibilities
Anarchists: Right Conduct in the Absence of Just Institutions
Marxists: Transcending the Circumstances of Justice
Communists: Using Social Control to Build a Society in which All Needs are Met
Fascists and Nazis: National or Racial Dominance as More Important than Justice
Contemporary Liberals: Compensating for Undeserved Disadvantages
The Radical Left: Pursuing a More Egalitarian Society
Contemporary Conservatives: Criticizing Social Justice, Emphasizing Compassion
The Radical Right: Focusing on Fair Procedures and the Pursuit of the Common Good
The Extreme Right: Regarding Moral Goodness as the Basis of Just Outcomes
The Extreme Left: Decrying Global Injustice while Striving to Share "the Common"
Conclusions
Questions of Change
Classical Liberals: Seeking Economic, Intellectual, and Moral Progress
Traditional Conservatives: Slowing the Winds of Change
Marxists: Predicting Revolution From Below
Anarchists: Calling for Rebellion rather than Revolution
Communists: Generating Revolutions While Deviating From Marxist Orthodoxy
Fascists and Nazis: Revolutionary Change Toward Certain Conservative Values
Contemporary Liberals: Achieving Fundamental Change Incrementally
Contemporary Conservatives: Pursuing Reforms - of "Failed" Liberal Programs
The Radical Right: Seeking Major Changes, even if they Enhance Inequalities
The Extreme Right: Returning to a Past of Greater Moral Certainty
The Radical Left: Evolutionary Change Toward More Democratic Equality
The Extreme Left: Wholesale and Ongoing Change - Without Revolutions
Conclusions
Notes
References
Index

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