Critique of Pure Reason

ISBN-10: 1403911959

ISBN-13: 9781403911957

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

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Book details

List price: $24.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Publication date: 9/6/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 728
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves.

Howard Caygill is Professor Of Modern European Philosophy at Kingston University London, UK.

Introduction
Of the Difference between Pure and Empirical Knowledge
The Human Intellect, even in an unphilosophical state, is in possession of certain cognitions a priori
Philosophy stands in need of a Science which shall determine the possibility, principles, and extent of Human Knowledge a priori
Of the Difference between Analytical and Synthetical Judgments
In all Theoretical Sciences of Reason, Synthetical Judgments a priori are contained as Principles
The Universal Problem of Pure Reason
Idea and Division of a Particular Science, under the Name of a Critique of Pure Reason
Transcendental Doctrine of Elements
Transcendental AEsthetic
Introductory
Of Space
Metaphysical Exposition of this Conception
Transcendental Exposition of the Conception of Space
Conclusions from the foregoing Conceptions
Of Time
Metaphysical Exposition of this Conception
Transcendental Exposition of the Conception of Time
Conclusions from the above Conceptions
Elucidation
General Remarks on Transcendental AEsthetic
Transcendental Logic
Of Logic in general
Of Transcendental Logic
Of the Division of General Logic into Analytic and Dialectic
Of the Division of Transcendental Logic into Transcendental Analytic and Dialectic
Transcendental Analytic
Analytic of Conceptions
Of the Transcendental Clue to the Discovery of all Pure Conceptions of the Understanding
Of the Logical use of the Understanding in general
Of the Logical Function of the Understanding in Judgments
Of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding, or Categories
Of the Deduction of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding
Of the Principles of Transcendental Deduction in general
Transition to the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories
Of the Possibility of a Conjunction of the manifold representations given by Sense
Of the Originally Synthetical Unity of Apperception
The Principle of the Synthetical Unity of Apperception is the highest Principle of all exercise of the Understanding
What Objective Unity of Self-consciousness is
The Logical Form of all Judgments consists in the Objective Unity of Apperception of the Conceptions contained therein
All Sensuous Intuitions are subject to the Categories, as Conditions under which alone the manifold contents of them can be united in one Consciousness
Observation
In Cognition, its Application to Objects of Experience is the only legitimate use of the Category
Of the Application of the Categories to Objects of the Senses in general
Transcendental Deduction of the universally possible employment in experience of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding
Result of this Deduction of the Conceptions of the Understanding
Short view of the above Deduction
Analytic of Principles
Of the Transcendental Faculty of Judgment in general
Of the Schematism of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding
System of all Principles of the Pure Understanding
Of the Supreme Principle of all Analytical Judgments
Of the Supreme Principle of all Synthetical Judgments
Systematic Representations of all Synthetical Principles thereof
Axioms of Intuition
Anticipations of Perception
Analogies of Experience
First Analogy.--Principle of the Permanence of Substance
Second Analogy.--Principle of the Succession of Time
Third Analogy.--Principle of Coexistence
The Postulates of Empirical Thought
Refutation of Idealism
General Remark on the System of Principles
Of the Ground of the division of all objects into Phenomena and Noumena
Of the Equivocal Nature or Amphiboly of the Conceptions of Reflection from the Confusion of the Transcendental with the Empirical use of the Understanding
Remark on the Amphiboly of the Conceptions of Reflection
Transcendental Dialectic
Of Transcendental Illusory Appearance
Of Pure Reason as the Seat of Transcendental Illusory Appearance
Of Reason in General
Of the Logical Use of Reason
Of the Pure Use of Reason
Of the Conceptions of Pure Reason
Of Ideas in General
Of Transcendental Ideas
System of Transcendental Ideas
Of the Dialectical Procedure of Pure Reason
Of the Conceptions of Pure Reason
Refutation of the Argument of Mendelssohn for the Substantiality or Permanence of the Soul
Conclusion of the Solution of the Psychological Paralogism
General Remark on the Transition from Rational Psychology to Cosmology
The Antinomy of Pure Reason
System of Cosmological Ideas
Antithetic of Pure Reason
First Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas
Second Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas
Third Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas
Fourth Conflict of the Transcendental Ideas
Of the Interest of Reason in these Self-contradictions
Of the Necessity Imposed upon Pure Reason of presenting a Solution of its Transcendental Problems
Sceptical Exposition of the Cosmological Problems presented in the four Transcendental Ideas
Transcendental Idealism as the Key to the Solution of Pure Cosmological Dialectic
Critical Solution of the Cosmological Problems
Regulative Principle of Pure Reason in relation to the Cosmological Ideas
Of the Empirical Use of the Regulative Principle of Reason, with regard to the Cosmological Ideas
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Composition of Phenomena in the Universe
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Division of a Whole given in Intuition
Concluding Remark on the Solution of the Transcendental Mathematical Ideas--and Introductory to the Solution of the Dynamical Ideas
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Deduction of Cosmical Events from their Causes
Possibility of Freedom in Harmony with the Universal Law of Natural Necessity
Exposition of the Cosmological Idea of Freedom in Harmony with the Universal Law of Natural Necessity
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Dependence of Phenomenal Existences
Concluding Remarks on the Antinomy of Pure Reason
The Ideal of Pure Reason
Of the Ideal in General
Of the Transcendental Ideal
Of the Arguments Employed by Speculative Reason in Proof of the Existence of a Supreme Being
Of the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God
Of the Impossibility of a Cosmological Proof of the Existence of God
Detection and Explanation of the Dialectical Illusion in all Transcendental Arguments for the Existence of a Necessary Being
Of the Impossibility of a Physico-Theological Proof
Critique of all Theology based upon Speculative Principles of Reason
Of the Regulative Employment of the Ideas of Pure Reason
Of the Ultimate End of the Natural Dialectic of Human Reason
Transcendental Doctrine of Method
Introduction
The Discipline of Pure Reason
The Discipline of Pure Reason in the Sphere of Dogmatism
The Discipline of Pure Reason in Polemics
Scepticism Not a Permanent State for Human Reason
The Discipline of Pure Reason in Hypothesis
The Discipline of Pure Reason in Relation to Proofs
The Canon of Pure Reason
Of the Ultimate End of the Pure Use of Reason
Of the Ideal of the Summum Bonum as a Determining Ground of the ultimate End of Pure Reason
Of Opinion, Knowledge, and Belief
The Architectonic of Pure Reason
The History of Pure Reason
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