Introducing Biological Rhythms A Primer on the Temporal Organization of Life, with Implications for Health, Society, Reproduction, and the Natural Environment

ISBN-10: 1402036914
ISBN-13: 9781402036910
Edition: 2006
List price: $109.00 Buy it from $63.99
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Description: Written for students and professionals who want to learn more about biological rhythms and the science of chronobiology. This work serves to introduce individuals to a topic that encompasses all living organisms. It is intended to cover a basic  More...

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Book details

List price: $109.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 1/24/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 656
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Written for students and professionals who want to learn more about biological rhythms and the science of chronobiology. This work serves to introduce individuals to a topic that encompasses all living organisms. It is intended to cover a basic cross-section of the field of chronobiology.

Preface
Acknowledgments
The Study of Biological Rhythms
Introduction
A Time for Everything
Three Rhythm Domains
Implications of Body Clocks
Accidents and Catastrophes
Chronobiology: An Integrating Discipline
Chapters in This Book
Take-Home Message
General Features of Rhythms: Terminology and Characteristics
Introduction
Details of a Rhythm
Period and Frequency
Circadian Domain
Use of the term "Circadian"
Other Domains
Time on Earth as We Know It
Amplitude
Phase
Genetics and Inheritance
Period
Amplitude and Phase
Primary Circadian Clocks
The Brain
SCN Identification
SCN as Synchronizer
Retinal Melanopsin
Retinohypothalamic Tract
Characteristics of the Period
Stability and Free-Running
Frequency Multiplication/Demultiplication
Light Quality
Temperature
Chemicals
Characteristics of the Amplitude
Damping
Characteristics of the Phase
Synchronizers
Phase-Shifting by Light
Phase Shifts by Chemicals or Temperature
Phase-Response Curve
Masking
Need for a Cyclic Environment
In Darwin's Footsteps
An Ultradian Experiment: Circumnutation
A Circadian Experiment: Leaf Movements
Mechanisms
Take-Home Message
Physical and Biological Time
Introduction
Rotations and Revolutions of the Earth and Moon
The Day
The Year
The Month
Clocks and Calendars: Ancient Times
The Month and Year
The Day
The Week
Clocks and Calendars: Middle Ages to Now
Longitude and Clocks
Springs to Atoms
Wristwatches
Time Zones
Daylight Saving Time
Recording Date and Time
Recording Biological Time
The 24-h Biological Clock Concept
Early Studies
Considerations
Ultradian and Infradian Clocks
Endogenous vs. Exogenous
Comparison with Manufactured Clocks
Evolution of the Clock
Molecular Building Blocks
Geological History and Rhythmic Components
Adaptation to Avoid Harmful Light
Ancestral Traits and Convergent Evolution
Take-Home Message
Photoperiodism
Introduction
Daylight and Seasons
Photoperiodism: The Process
Response Types
Critical Daylength
Diversity of Responses
Early Studies
Latitude
Light and Photoreceptive Regions
Extraretinal Photoreceptors
Pigments
Cryptochromes
Spectra
Rhythmic Association
Endogenous Oscillators
Bunning's Hypothesis
Phase-Response Curves
Ultradian Cycles
Circannual Cycles
Bird Migration
Deer Antlers
Vernalization
Photoperiodism and Humans
Birth Patterns
Indoor vs. Outdoor Light
Disorders
Take-Home Message
Biological Oscillators and Timers: Models and Mechanisms
Introduction
Approaches to Models and Mechanisms
Mechanical Models
Pendulum
Hourglass
External Coincidence
Hands of a Clock
Mathematical Models
Differential Equations
Limit Cycles and Topography
Chaos
Spatiotemporal Systems
Biochemical and Metabolic Models
Chemical Systems
Biochemical Systems
Selected Biochemical Notes
Glycolytic Oscillations
Nucleotides and Enzymes
Membrane Models
Membranes and the Phospholipid Bilayer
Lipids and Proteins
Transport and Feedback
Molecular Models
From Genes to Proteins and Mutants
Genes and Nomenclature
Clock Mutations
Circadian: System and Clock
Transcription/Translation Feedback Loops
Light
Temperature
Five Circadian Clocks
Neurospora Circadian Clock
Advantages
Overt Rhythms
Genetic Highlights
Feedback Loops and Components
Drosophila Circadian Clock
Advantages
Overt Rhythms
Genetic Highlights
Feedback Loops and Components
Mammalian Circadian Clock
Advantages
Overt Rhythms
Genetic Highlights
Feedback Loops and Components
Arabidopsis Circadian Clock
Advantages
Overt Rhythms
Genetic Highlights
Feedback Loops and Components
Cyanobacteria Circadian Clock
Advantages
Overt Rhythms
Genetic Highlights
Feedback Loops and Components
Models in Perspective
Generalized Schematic Model for Biological Rhythms
Take-Home Message
Tidal and Lunar Rhythms
Introduction
Moon and Light
Moon and Tides
High and Low Tides
Spring and Neap Tides
Earth Tide
Earth Tides
Marine Organisms
Circatidal Rhythms
Crab Activity
Circadian vs. Circatidal
Other Organisms
Reproduction
Color Change
Terrestrial Organisms
The Menstrual Cycle
Atmospheric Tides
Insects
Plants
Lunar/Tidal Clock Hypotheses
Circadian vs. Circalunidian
Interacting Oscillators?
Take-Home Message
Sexuality and Reproduction
Introduction
Parasexuality
Nuclear Division and Genetics
Mitosis, Meiosis, and the Punnett Square
Sex and Reproduction: The Difference
Artificial Hybridization and How Sex Produces both "Lunch" and an Embryo
Asexual Reproduction
An Abbreviated Life History of Neurospora crassa
Courtship and Mating
Photoperiodism and Sexuality
Diet
Flowers
Rhythmic Phases of Sexual Behavior in Humans
Activity
Disease
The Menstrual Cycle
Duration and Phase
Brief Physiology of Menstrual Cycle Events and Phases
Social Synchronization
Sexual Activity and Birth Control
Primary and Secondary Sex-Related Rhythms in Men
Ultradian and Circadian Cycles
Infradian Cycles
17th Century Notes of Monthly Rhythms in Males
Body Weight
Grip Strength
Cutaneous Pain
Hormones
More About Infradians in Male Hormones
Emotions
Facial Sebum
Beard Growth and Body Hair
Sexual Activity
Take-Home Message
Natural Resources and Agriculture
Introduction
Photoperiodism
Photoperiodism as a Basic Principle of Biology and Its Applications
Thermoperiodism and Temperature Cycles
Vernalization
Temperature Compensation
Migration
Birds
Butterflies
Pest Management and Agents of Stress
Herbicides
Pest Control
Plant Responses to Injury
Plant Diseases
Production of Produce
Fisheries and Aquaculture
Weather Patterns and Agriculture
Gardens
Outdoor Hobbies
Birding
Fishing
Fly-fishing for Trout
Rural and Urban Development
Telemetry Tracking Systems
Muskrats
Squirrels and Foxes
Hare
Ruffed Grouse
The Outdoor Laboratory
Temporal Agroecosystems
Light Pollution
Aquatic Animals
Vertical Migration
Drift
Trout
Turtles
Insects
Birds
Take-Home Message
Veterinary Medicine
Introduction
Body Temperature and Activity
Diurnal vs. Nocturnal
Timing of Food
Masking
Environment
Cattle
Dogs and Cats
Poultry
Hematology and Urology
Sampling Blood
Multiple Rhythms
Peak Times
Collecting Urine
Excretion Rates
Urinary Rhythms
Interpreting a Sample
A Primary Circadian Oscillator
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
The Pineal Gland
Diseases, Pests, and Stress
Parasites
Bacterial Infections
Seasonal Diseases
Flies
Fleas
Reproduction and Photoperiodism
Photoperiod
Melatonin
Domestic Fowl
Sheep
Horses
Pigs and Goats
Artificial Insemination
Semen Quality and Season
Implications
Take-Home Message
Society
Introduction
Past and Present
The Natural Day vs. 24/7
Time Schedules
Social Synchronization
Social Synchrony in Animals
Circadian Events
Ultradian and Infradian Events
Aggression and Violence
Night and Shiftwork
Time for Sleep
Problems with Shiftwork
Adjusting to Shiftwork
The Global Workplace
Communication
Work Schedules and Outsourcing
Sports and Performance
Body Temperature and Performance Variables
A Time to Train or Win
Jet Lag and Professional Sports
Allowing for Jet Lag
Travel on the Earth's Surface
Driver Fatigue and Vehicle Accidents
Alcohol, Driving, and Fatigue
The Post-Lunch Dip
Animal Activity and Vehicle Accidents
Travel Above the Earth's Surface
Jet Lag
Life in Space
Travel Beneath the Seas
Mealtimes and Health
Preclinical Meal-Timing Studies
Changes in Body Weight and Rhythms
Food: What, How Much, and When
Light Pollution
Effects on Melatonin Production
Effects on Clinical Health
Better Lighting Practices
Pseudoscience: Birthdate-Based Biorhythms
Development of the Biorhythm "Theory"
Lack of Scientific Support
Rigidity vs. Elasticity of Infradian Periods
An Oversimplification of Rhythms
Take-Home Message
Clinical Medicine
Introduction
Circadian Rhythms in Health
Adjusting Urinary Concentrations for Volume and Time
Overview of Rhythms in Body Systems
What and When is Normal?
Time-Specified Normal Limits
Circadian Rhythms in Symptoms and Disease
Birth and Death
Cardiovascular Disease
Circannual Rhythms in Health
Circannual Rhythms in Symptoms and Disease
Cardiovascular Disease
The Coagulation System
Cholesterol
Respiratory Illness
Mental Disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder
The Menstrual Cycle
Disorders
Medical Procedures
Male Cycles
Melatonin and Human Health
Darkness and Melatonin
Sexuality
Immune Function
Light, Melatonin and Cancer
Light Leaks at Night
When to Sample?
Diagnosing Normal Levels
Diagnosing Infectious Agents
Diagnosing Abnormal Levels
Using Rhythm Characteristics in Diagnosis
Hours of Changing Resistance
Early Pre-Clinical Findings
Time-Related Responses to Anti-Cancer Drugs
Stage of Rhythm vs. Time of Day
Varying Positive or Negative Effects
Timing Treatment: Chronotherapy
Three Times a Day?
Constant Dosing
Rhythm-Dependent Effects of Some Drugs
Administering Chronotherapy
Examples of Applied Chronotherapy
Asthma
Cancer-Animal Studies
Cancer-Human Trials
Cellular Clocks and Chronotherapy
Time-Indicating Genes
Molecular Machinery Underlies Physiology
Marker Rhythms
The Medical Community and the Concept of Timing
Take-Home Message
Autorhythmometry
Introduction
Measuring Your Own Body Rhythms
School Children
Adults
Performance
Ultradian Rhythms
Self-help Health Care
Monitoring Symptoms
Body Temperature
Internal Marker Rhythm
Measurement Site
What and When is Normal?
Blood Pressure
Monitoring Hypertension
Ambulatory Monitoring
Morningness-Eveningness
Questionnaires
Morningness vs. Life Factors
Endogenous Disposition
Body Temperature Phase
Cognitive Tasks
When and How Long to Measure?
Self-Measurements During Travel
Self-Measurements During Isolation
Self-Measurements in "Aschoff's Bunker"
Long Self-Measurement Series
What can be Self-Measured?
Equipment
Internal or External Body Temperature
Temperature Devices
Blood Pressure Devices
Automatic Devices
Other Equipment
Saliva, Urine, and Blood
Procedures for Self-Measurements
Keeping Records
Sampling Sequence
Looking at the Data
Making Graphs
Testing for a Time-Effect
Take-Home Message
Appendix
Sample sheet for recording oral temperature and other functions
Sample sheet for recording and graphing temperature, pulse and blood pressure
Detailed instructions for performing self-measurements
Random Number Adding Speed Test sample pages
Random Number Memory Test sample pages
Chronobiometry: Analyzing for Rhythms
Introduction
Data Collection
Number of Timepoints
How Long?
Sampling Often Enough
Aliasing
Decision Making
Data Preparation
Graphs and Visual Inspection
Editing or Transforming Data
Standard Deviation and Error
Normalizing Data
Partitioning Data Spans
Statistical Detection of Time Effects
Using Two Timepoints
Using Three or More Timepoints
Statistical Detection of Rhythms
Analyzing Time-Series by Standard Methods
Limitations of Standard Methods
Analyzing Time-Series by Curve Fitting
The Least-Squares Technique
The Best-Fitting Curve
Statistical Significance
Complex Waveforms
Rhythm Parameter Comparisons
Lack of Rhythm Detection
Descriptive Rhythm Parameters
The Cosinor Illustrated
Example of a Cosinor Program
Take-Home Message
Author Index
Subject Index

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