Essence of Anthropology

ISBN-10: 1111833443
ISBN-13: 9781111833442
Edition: 3rd 2013
List price: $143.95 Buy it from $7.71
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Description: Filled with current examples, THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY brings to life anthropology's key concepts and their great relevance to today's complex world. You'll learn about the varied ways culture helps humans adapt to face the challenges of  More...

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Book details

List price: $143.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 1/9/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 2.178

Filled with current examples, THE ESSENCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY brings to life anthropology's key concepts and their great relevance to today's complex world. You'll learn about the varied ways culture helps humans adapt to face the challenges of existence, the connection between human culture and human biology, and the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. Furthermore, the book is packed with learning tools that demonstrate major concepts, offer interesting examples of anthropology's relevance to daily life, and guide your study to help you retain what you read.

William A. Haviland is professor emeritus at the University of Vermont, where he founded the Department of Anthropology and taught for 32 years. He holds a PhD in anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. He has carried out original research in archaeology in Guatemala and Vermont; ethnography in Maine and Vermont; and physical anthropology in Guatemala. This work has been the basis of numerous publications in national and international books and journals, as well as in media intended for the general public. His books include The Original Vermonters, coauthored with Marjorie Power, and a technical monograph on ancient Maya settlement. He also served as consultant for the award-winning telecourse Faces of Culture, and he is co-editor of the series Tikal Reports, published by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Besides teaching and writing, Dr. Haviland has lectured to many professional and nonprofessional audiences in Canada, Mexico, Lesotho, South Africa, and Spain, as well as in the United States. He served as expert witness for the Missisquoi Abenaki of Vermont in an important court case over aboriginal fishing rights. Dr. Haviland was named University Scholar by the Graduate School of the University of Vermont in 1990; received a Certificate of Appreciation from the Sovereign Republic of the Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi, St. Francis/Sokoki Band in 1996; and was given a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Center for Research on Vermont in 2006. Now retired from teaching, he continues his research, writing, and lecturing from the coast of Maine. He serves as a trustee for the Abbe Museum in Bar Harbor, focused on Maine's Native American history, culture, art, and archaeology. His most recent books are At the Place of the Lobsters and Crabs (2009) and Canoe Indians of Down East Maine (2012).

Dr. Dana Walrath is Assistant Professor of Family Medicine at the University of Vermont and a Women's Studies affiliated faculty member. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and is a medical and biological anthropologist with principal interests in biocultural aspects of reproduction, the cultural context of biomedicine, genetics, and evolutionary medicine. She directs an innovative educational program at the University of Vermont's College of Medicine that brings anthropological theory and practice to first year medical students. Before joining the faculty at the University of Vermont in 2000, she taught at the University of Pennsylvania and Temple University. Her research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, Health Resources and Services Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and the Templeton Foundation. Dr. Walrath's publications have appeared in "Current Anthropology," "American Anthropologist" and "American Journal of Physical Anthropology". An active member of the Council on the Anthropology of Reproduction, she has also served on a national committee to develop women's health care learning and works locally to improve healthcare for refugees and immigrants.

Bunny McBride is an award-winning author specializing in cultural anthropology, indigenous peoples, international tourism, and nature conservation issues. Published in dozens of national and international print media, she has reported from Africa, Europe, China, and the Indian Ocean. Holding an MA from Columbia University, she is highly rated as a teacher, and she has served as visiting anthropology faculty at Principia College and the Salt Institute for Documentary Field Studies. Since 1996, she has been an adjunct lecturer of anthropology at Kansas State University. Among her many publications are books such as Women of the Dawn; Molly Spotted Elk: A Penobscot in Paris; Indians in Eden (with Harald Prins); and The Audubon Field Guide to African Wildlife, which she coauthored. McBride also has authored numerous book chapters. Honors include a special commendation from the state legislature of Maine for significant contributions to Native women's history. As an activist and researcher for the Aroostook Band of Micmacs (1981-1991), she assisted this Maine Indian community in its successful efforts to reclaim lands, gain tribal status, and revitalize cultural traditions. In recent years, she has served as co-principal investigator for a National Park Service ethnography project and curated several museum exhibits, including "Journeys West: The David & Peggy Rockefeller American Indian Art Collection" for the Abbe Museum in Bar Harbor, Maine. Her latest exhibit, "Indians & Rusticators," received a 2012 Leadership in History Award from the American Association for State and Local History. Currently, she serves as president of the Women's World Summit Foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland, and is completing a collection of essays.

Preface
The Essence of Anthropology
The Anthropological Perspective
Anthropology and Its Fields
Cultural Anthropology
Linguistic Anthropology
Archaeology
Physical Anthropology
Anthropology, Science, and the Humanities
Fieldwork
Field Methods
Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Methods
Ethnographic Methods
Anthropology's Comparative Method
Questions of Ethics
Anthropology and Globalization
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Picturing Pesticides
Anthropology Applied: Forensic Anthropology: Voices for the Dead, by Clyde C. Snow. Karen Burns, Amy Zelson Mundorff, and Michael Blakey
Original Study: Whispers from the Ice, by Sherry Simpson
Biology and Evolution
Evolution and Creation Stories
The Classification of Living Things
The Discovery of Evolution
Heredity
The Transmission of Genes
Genes and Alleles
Cell Division
Polygenetic Inheritance
Evolution, Individuals, and Populations
Mutation
Genetic Drift
Gene Flow
Natural Selection
The Case of Sickle-Cell Anemia
Adaptation and Physical Variation
Macroevolution and the Process of Speciation
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: The Social Impact of Genetics on Reproduction
Original Study: Ninety-Eight Percent Alike: What Our Similarity to Apes Tells Us about Our Understanding of Genetics, by Jonathan Marks
Living Primates
Methods and Ethics in Primatology
Primates as Mammals
Primate Characteristics
Primate Teeth
Sensory Organs
The Primate Brain
The Primate Skeleton
Living Primates
Lemurs and Lorises
Tarsiers
Anthropoids: Monkeys and Apes
Small and Great Apes
Primate Behavior
Chimpanzee and Bonobo Behavior
Concealed Ovulation
Reproduction and Care of Young
Communication
Use of Objects as Tools
The Question of Culture
Primate Behavior and Human Evolution
Primate Conservation
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Why Red Is Such a Potent Color, by Meredith F. Small
Original Study: Reconciliation and Its Cultural Modification in Primates, by Frans B. M. de Waal
Human Evolution
Mammalian Primate Evolution
Human Evolution
The First Bipeds
Ardipithecus ramidus
The Anatomy of Bipedalism
Australopithecines
Homo habilis
Interpreting the Fossil Record
Tools, Food, and Brain Expansion
Homo erectus
Lumpers or Splitters
The Neandertals
The Upper Paleolithic
The Modern Human Origins Debate
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Evolution and Human Birth
Anthropology Applied: Stone Tools for Modern Surgeons
The Neolithic Revolution
The Mesolithic Roots of Farming and Pastoralism
The Neolithic Revolution
What Is Domestication?
Evidence of Early Plant Domestication
Evidence of Early Animal Domestication
Why Humans Became Food Producers
The Fertile Crescent
Other Centers of Domestication
Food Production and Population Size
The Spread of Food Production
The Culture of Neolithic Settlements
Jericho: An Early Farming Community
Neolithic Material Culture
Social Structure
Neolithic Cultures in the Americas
The Neolithic and Human Biology
The Neolithic and the Idea of Progress
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Original Study: The Real Dirt on Rainforest Fertility, by Charles C. Mann
Biocultural Connection: Paleolithic Prescriptions for the Neolithic and Beyond
The Emergence of Cities and States
Defining Civilization
Tikal: A Case Study
Surveying and Excavating the Site
Evidence from the Excavation
Cities and Cultural Change
Agricultural Innovation
Diversification of Labor
Central Government
Social Stratification
The Making of States
Ecological Theories
Action Theory
Civilization and Its Discontents
Social Stratification and Disease
Colonialism and Disease
Anthropology and Cities of the Future
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Anthropology Applied: Tell It to the Marines: Teaching Troops about Cultural Heritage, by Jane C. Waldbaum
Biocultural Connection: Perilous Pigs: The Introduction of Swine-Borne Disease to the Americas, by Charles C. Mann
Modern Human Diversity-Race and Racism
The History of Human Classification
Race as a Biological Concept
The Conflation of the Biological into the Cultural Category of Race
The Social Significance of Race: Racism
Race and Behavior
Race and Intelligence
Studying Human Biological Diversity
Skin Color: A Case Study in Adaptation
Culture and Biological Diversity
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Original Study: A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene, by Jonathan Marks
Biocultural Connection: Beans, Enzymes, and Adaptation to Malaria
The Characteristics of Culture
Culture and Adaptation
The Concept of Culture
Characteristics of Culture
Culture Is Learned
Culture Is Shared
Culture Is Based on Symbols
Culture Is Integrated
Culture Is Dynamic
Culture and Change
Culture, Society, and the Individual
Ethnocentrism and the Evaluation of Culture
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Pig Lovers and Pig Haters, by Marvin Harris
Anthropology Applied: New Houses for Apache Indians, by George S. Esber
Language and Communication
Linguistic Research and the Nature of Language
Descriptive Linguistics
Phonology
Morphology, Syntax, and Grammar
Historical Linguistics
Processes of Linguistic Divergence
Language Loss and Revival
Language in Its Social and Cultural Settings
Sociolinguistics
Ethnolinguistics
Language Versatility
Beyond Words: The Gesture-Call System
Nonverbal Communication
Paralanguage
Tonal Languages
Telecommunication: Talking Drums and Whistled Speech
The Origins of Language
From Speech to Writing
Literacy and Modern Telecommunication in Our Globalizing World
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Anthropology Applied: When Bambi Spoke Arapaho: Preserving Indigenous Languages, by S. Neyooxet Greymorning
Biocultural Connection: The Biology of Human Speech
Social Identity, Personality, and Gender
Enculturation: The Self and Social Identity
Self-Awareness
Social Identity Through Personal Naming
Self and the Behavioral Environment
Culture and Personality
Personality Development: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Gender
Group Personality
Modal Personality
National Character
Core Values
Alternative Gender Models
Normal and Abnormal Personality in Social Context
Sadhus: Holy Men in Hindu Cultures
Mental Disorders Across Time and Cultures
Personal Identity and Mental Health in Globalizing Society
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Original Study: The Blessed Curse, by R. K. Williamson
Biocultural Connection: Down Syndrome Across Cultures, by Katherine A. Detrwyler
Subsistence and Exchange
Adaptation
The Unit of Adaptation
Adaptation in Cultural Evolution
Modes of Subsistence
Food-Foraging Societies
Characteristics of Food-Foraging Societies
Food-Producing Societies
Producing Food in Gardens: Horticulture
Producing Food on Farms: Agriculture
Mixed Farming: Crop Growing and Animal Breeding
Herding Grazing Animals: Pastoralism
Inten Agriculture: Urbanization and Peasantry
Industrial Food Production
Subsistence and Economics
Land and Water Resources
Technology Resources
Labor Resources and Patterns
Distribution and Exchange
Reciprocity
Redistribution
Market Exchange and the Marketplace
Local Economies and Global Capitalism
Informal Economy and the Escape from State Bureaucracy
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Surviving in the Andes: Aymara Adaptation to High Altitude
Anthropology Applied: Anthropologist S. Ann Dunham: Mother to a U.S. President, by Nancy I. Cooper
Sex, Marriage, and Family
Control of Sexual Relations,
Marriage and the Regulation of Sexual Relations
Incest Taboo
Endogamy and Exogamy
Distinction Between Marriage and Mating
Forms of Marriage
Monogamy
Polygamy
Group Marriage
Choice of Spouse
Cousin Marriage
Same-Sex Marriage
Marriage and Economic Exchange
Divorce
Family and Household
Forms of the Family
Nontraditional Families and Nonfamily Households
Residence Patterns
Marriage, Family, and Household in Our Globalized and Technologized World
Adoption and New Reproductive Technologies
Migrant Workforces
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Marriage Prohibitions in the United States, by Martin Ottenheimer
Original Study: Arranging Marriage in India, by Serena Nanda
Kinship and Other Forms of Grouping
Descent Groups
Unilineal Descent
Other Forms of Descent
Descent Within the Larger Cultural System
Lineage Exogamy
From Lineage to Clan
Phratries and Moieties
Bilateral Kinship and the Kindred
Kinship Terminology and Kinship Groups
The Eskimo System
The Hawaiian System
The Iroquois System
Kinship Terms and New Reproductive Technologies
Grouping Beyond Kinship
Grouping by Gender
Grouping by Age
Grouping by Common Interest
Grouping by Social Status in Stratified Societies
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Maori Origins: Ancestral Genes and Mythical Canoes
Original Study: African Burial Ground Project, by Michael Blakey
Politics, Power, and Violence
Systems of Political Organization
Uncentralized Political Systems
Centralized Political Systems
Political Systems and the Question of Legitimacy
Politics and Religion
Political Leadership and Gender
Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order
Internalized Controls
Externalized Controls
Social Control Through Law
Functions of Law
Punishing Crimes and Settling Disputes
Restorative Justice and Conflict Resolution
Violent Conflict and Warfare
Why War?
Wars Today
Domination and Repression
Acculturation
Ethnocide
Genocide
Resistance to Domination and Repression
Violent Resistance: Rebellion and Revolution
Nonviolent Resistance: Revitalization Movements
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Anthropology Applied: William Ury: Dispute Resolution and the Anthropologist
Biocultural Connection: Gender, Sex, and Human Violence
Spirituality and Religion
The Role of Spirituality and Religion
The Anthropological Approach to Religion
Myth
Supernatural Beings and Spiritual Forces
Gods and Goddesses
Ancestral Spirits
Other Types of Supernatural Beings and Spiritual Forces
Sacred Places
Religious Specialists
Priests and Priestesses
Shamans
Sacred Performances: Rituals and Ceremonies
Rites of Passage
Rites of Intensification
Magic
Witchcraft
Ibibio Witchcraft
Functions of Witchcraft
Consequences of Witchcraft
Religion in Cultural Change: Revitalization Movements
Persistence of Spirituality and Religion
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection; Change Your Karma and Change Your Sex? by Hillary Crane
Original Study: Healing among the Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari, by Marjorie Shostak
Global Changes and the Role of Anthropology
Modernization in the Age of Globalization
A Global Culture?
Doubts about a Global Cultural Unification
Pluralistic Societies and Multiculturalism
Pluralistic Societies and Ethnocentrism
Structural Power in the Age of Globalization
Military Hard Power
Economic Hard Power
Soft Power: A Global Media Environment
Problems of Structural Violence
Overpopulation and Poverty
Hunger and Obesity
Pollution and Global Warming
Reactions to Globalization
Ethnic Minorities and Indigenous Peoples: Struggles for Human Rights
Global Migrations: Refugees, Migrants, and Diasporic Communities
Concluding Remarks
Chapter Checklist
Questions for Reflection
Key Terms
Online Study Resources
Biocultural Connection: Toxic Breast Milk Threatens Arctic Culture
Anthropology Applied: Paul Farmer: Anthropology and Local Health Care Worldwide
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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