Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity

ISBN-10: 0880118822
ISBN-13: 9780880118828
Edition: 2nd 2004
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Description: The second edition of Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of  More...

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Book details

List price: $99.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
Publication date: 12/18/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 728
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 2.00" tall
Weight: 4.796
Language: English

The second edition of Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of children and adolescents. The new edition retains all the best features of the original text, including the helpful outlines at the beginning of each chapter that allow students to review major concepts.This edition features updates on basic content, expanded and modified chapters, and the latest research findings to meet the needs of upper undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers and professionals working with children and young adults. The second edition also includes these new features:--10 lab activities that encourage students to investigate subject matter outside of class and save teachers time-A complete reference list at the end of each chapter-Chapter-ending summaries to make the review process easy for students-New chapters that contain updates on thermoregulation, methods for the assessment of physical activity, undernutrition, obesity, children with clinical conditions, and trends in growth and performance-Discussions that span current problems in public health, such as the quantification of physical activity and energy expenditure, persistent undernutrition in developing countries, and the obesity epidemic in developed countriesThe authors are three of the world's foremost authorities on children's growth and development. In 29 chapters, they address introductory concepts and prenatal growth, postnatal growth, functional development, biological maturation, influencing factors in growth, maturation and development, and specific applications to public health and sport. In addition, secular trends in growth, maturation, and performance over the past 150 years are considered. You'll be able to recognize risk factors that may affect young athletes; you'll also be able to make informed decisions about appropriate physical activities, program delivery, and performance expectations.Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Second Edition, covers many additional topics, including new techniques for the assessment of body composition, the latest advances in the study of skeletal muscle, the human genome, the hormonal regulation of growth and maturation, clarification of dietary reference intakes, and the study of risk factors for several adult diseases.This is the only text to focus on the biological growth and maturation process of children and adolescents as it relates to physical activity and performance. With over 300 new pages of material, this text expertly builds on the successful first edition.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Introductory Concepts
Definitions and Context
Chronological Age and Age Groups
Why Study These Phenomena?
Types of Studies
Principles of Measurement and Observation
Overview of Postnatal Growth: Scammon's Curves
General Regulation of Growth and Maturation
Sources of Growth, Performance, and Activity Data
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Prenatal Growth and Functional Development
Stages of Prenatal Growth
Sex Differentiation
Twins and Twinning
Prenatal Loss
Congenital Malformations
Fetal Growth
Fetal Motor Activity
Factors That Affect Birth Weight
Overview of the Prenatal Period
Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Postnatal Growth
Somatic Growth
Measurements Commonly Used in Growth Studies
Growth in Stature and Body Weight
Growth of the Body Mass Index
Growth Patterns in Other Body Dimensions
Changes in Body Proportions
Adjusting for Variation in Body Size-Scaling
Tracking
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Development of Physique
Concept of Somatotype
Methods in the Assessment of Physique
Somatotyping Children and Adolescents
Examples of Somatotypes of Individuals During Growth
Distributions of Somatotypes
Change in Somatotype During Growth
Tracking
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Body Composition
Models of Body Composition
Methods for Estimating Body Composition
Applications to Children and Adolescents
Concept of Chemical Maturity
Composition of the Fat-Free Mass in Children and Adolescents
Changes in Body Density and Total-Body Water During Growth
Growth in Fat-Free Mass, Fat Mass, and Percent Fat
Tracking
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Bone Tissue in Skeletal Growth and Body Composition
Bone Cells
Bone Formation
Growth of a Long Bone
Bone As a Component of Body Composition
Tracking
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Muscle As a Tissue
Myogenesis
Muscle Fiber Types
Muscle Fiber Size
Contractile Properties of Muscle
Metabolic Properties of Muscle
Assessing Muscle Mass of the Body
Development of Muscle Tissue by Bodily Region
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Adipose Tissue
The Fat Cell As a Complex Structure
Stages and Mechanisms of Adipogenesis
White and Brown Adipose Cells
White Adipose Tissue in Prenatal Life
White Adipose Tissue in Postnatal Life
Subcutaneous Fat Distribution During Growth
Abdominal Visceral Fat During Growth
Stability of Body Fat During Growth
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Functional Development
Heart, Blood, and Lungs
Features of Fetal Circulation
Cardiopulmonary Adjustments at Birth
Changes in Heart Size
Changes in Heart Functions
Changes in Features of Blood During Growth
Changes in Lungs and Respiratory Functions During Growth
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Motor Development
What Is Motor Development?
Motor Pattern and Skill
Classifications of Motor Activities
The Newborn Infant and the Reflexes of Infancy
Motor Development -Birth to 2 Years of Age
Development of Independent Walking
Development of Fundamental Motor Skills
Early Motor Development and Growth of the Brain
Status at Birth and Subsequent Motor Development
Early Postnatal Growth and Motor Development
Overview of Motor Development
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Strength and Motor Performance
Physical Fitness
Measures of Strength and Motor Performance
Performance in Early Childhood
Performance in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Relationships of Strength and Motor Performance to Size, Physique, and Body Composition
Scaling of Strength and Motor Performance
Tracking
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Aerobic Performance
Measurement Issues
Growth-Related Adaptations in Aerobic Performance
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Anaerobic Performance
Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Energy Turnover
Determinants of Anaerobic Performance
Measurement Issues
Growth and the Determinants of Anaerobic Performance
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Thermoregulation During Growth
The Physics of Heat Transfer
Physiologic Means of Thermoregulation
Responses to Heat Associated With Growth and Maturation
Acclimatization and Acclimation
Responses to Cold Climates
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Biological Maturation
Biological Maturation: Concepts and Assessment
Assessing Skeletal Maturity
Assessing Sexual Maturity
Assessing Somatic Maturity
Assessing Dental Maturity
Interrelationships Among Maturity Indicators
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Timing and Sequence of Changes During Adolescence
Adolescent Growth Spurt
Sexual Maturity
Sequence of Sexual and Somatic Maturity
Growth Spurts in Other Dimensions
Body Dimensions and Composition Relative to Peak Height Velocity
Growth Spurts in Performance
Performance Relative to Menarche
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Maturity-Associated Variation in Growth and Performance
Classifying Children by Maturity Status
Maturity-Associated Variation in Body Size
Maturity-Associated Variation in Physique
Maturity-Associated Variation in Body Composition
Maturity-Associated Variation in Adipose Tissue Distribution
Maturity-Associated Variation in Strength and Motor Performance
Maturity-Associated Variation in the Adaptation to Exercise and VO2max
Maturity-Associated Variation in Anaerobic Performance
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Influencing Factors
Genetic Regulation of Growth, Maturation, and Performance
The Human Genome
The Human Gene
From Genes to Proteins to Phenotypes
Gene Expression
The Special Case of Mitochondrial DNA
Genetic Variation in Human Genes
The Multifactorial Phenotype
Genetics of Fetal Development
Genetic Influences on the Newborn
Genetics of Selected Growth Phenotypes
Genetics of Maturation
Genetics of Selected Performance Phenotypes
Examples of Growth-Related Genes
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Maturation
Endocrine, Paracrine, Autocrine, and Intracrine Systems
Endocrine Hormones
Other Growth-Promoting Factors and Hormones
Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones
Growth Hormone and Related Growth Factors
Thyroid Hormones
Parathyroid and Calcitonin Hormones
Hormones From the Adrenal Medulla and Cortex
Gonadal Glands and Hormones
Insulin and Glucagon
Leptin
Regulation of Puberty
Menstrual Cycle
Overview of Hormones and Their Actions
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Energy and Nutritional Requirements
Nutrients
Breast-Feeding and the Infant
Energy Needs
Energy Requirements for Growth
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for Energy Intake
DRI for Protein Intake
DRI for Lipid Intake
Carbohydrate Requirements
Vitamin Requirements
Mineral Requirements
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: Assessment, Trends, and Tracking
What Is Physical Activity?
What Is Energy Expenditure?
Methods of Assessing Patterns or Levels of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure
Developmental Trends in Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure
Tracking of Physical Activity Levels
Correlates of Physical Activity Levels in Childhood and Adolescence
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Physical Activity As a Factor in Growth, Maturation, and Performance
Physical Activity
Approaches to the Study of Physical Activity
Activity and Stature
Activity, Body Weight, and Body Composition
Activity and Physique
Activity and Specific Tissues
Activity and Biological Maturity
Overview of Activity, Growth, and Maturation
Activity, Fitness, and Performance
The Concept of Trainability
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Undernutrition in Childhood and Adolescence
Criteria
Prevalence
Forms of Undernutrition
Undernutrition in Preschool Children
Undernutrition in School-Age Children
Long-Term Consequences of Undernutrition
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence
Indicators
Criteria and Prevalence
Correlates of Overweight and Obesity
Consequences of Obesity for Children and Adolescents
Long-Term Consequences of Obesity
Treatment
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Other Factors Affecting Growth, Maturation, Performance, and Activity
Social Conditions, Growth, and Maturation
Social Conditions, Motor Development, Performance, and Activity
Ethnic Variation in Growth and Maturity
Ethnic Variation in Motor Development, Performance, and Activity
Climate, Growth, and Maturity
Climate, Performance, and Physical Activity
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Applications
Risk Factors During Growth and Adult Health
Primary and Secondary Prevention
Risk Factors for Common Metabolic Diseases
Current Risk Profile of Children and Adolescents
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Chronic Clinical Conditions and Physical Disabilities
Selected Clinical Conditions That Affect Growth and Maturation
Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Conditions
Fitness and Performance of Children and Adolescents With Chronic Conditions
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
The Young Athlete
Participation in Youth Sports
Selection and Exclusion in Sport
Who Is the Young Athlete?
Stature and Weight of Young Athletes
Maturity Status and Progress of Young Athletes
Age at Menarche in Athletes
Physique of Young Athletes
Body Composition of Young Athletes
Motor Performance Characteristics of Young Athletes
Physiological Characteristics of Young Athletes
Does Training for Sport Influence the Growth and Maturity of Young Athletes?
Gymnastics and Ballet: Special Cases?
Overview
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Secular Trends in Growth, Maturation, and Performance
Definitions
Sources of Secular Trend Data
Limitations and Assumptions in Secular Comparisons
Secular Trends in Body Size
Secular Trends in Body Proportions
Secular Trends in Indicators of Maturity
Secular Trends in Performance
Secular Trends in Developing Countries
Factors Underlying Secular Trends
Summary
Sources and Suggested Readings
Suggestions for Individual and Group Activities
Index
About the Authors

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