Cell

ISBN-10: 0878932194

ISBN-13: 9780878932191

Edition: 4th 2006 (Revised)

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Description: The fourth edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect major advances in the field, including the role of microRNAs in the regulation of gene expression, advances in stem cell biology as well as Oncogenes and the rational design of new anticancer drugs.

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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: ASM Press
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 739
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 5.874
Language: English

GEOFFREY M. COOPER is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biology at Boston University, USA. ROBERT E. HAUSMAN is Professor and Graduate Director of the Department of Biology at Boston University, USA.

Preface
Organization and Features of The Cell
Media and Supplements to Accompany The Cell
Introduction
An Overview of Cells and Cell Research
The Origin and Evolution of Cells
The First Cell
The Evolution of Metabolism
Present-Day Prokaryotes
Eukaryotic Cells
The Origin of Eukaryotes
The Development of Multicellular Organisms
Cells as Experimental Models
E. coli
Yeasts
Caenorhabditis elegans
Drosophila melanogaster
Arabidopsis thaliana
Vertebrates
Tools of Cell Biology
Light Microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Subcellular Fractionation
Growth of Animal Cells in Culture
Culture of Plant Cells
Viruses
Key Experiment: Animal Cell Culture
Molecular Medicine: Viruses and Cancer
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
The Composition of Cells
The Molecules of Cells
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Cell Membranes
Membrane Lipids
Membrane Proteins
Transport across Cell Membranes
Proteomics: Large-Scale Analysis of Cell Proteins
Identification of Cell Proteins
Global Analysis of Protein Localization
Protein Interactions
Key Experiment: The Folding of Polypeptide Chains
Key Experiment: The Structure of Cell Membranes
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cell Metabolism
The Central Role of Enzymes as Biological Catalysts
The Catalytic Activity of Enzymes
Mechanisms of Enzymatic Catalysis
Coenzymes
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
Metabolic Energy
Free Energy and ATP
The Generation of ATP from Glucose
The Derivation of Energy from Other Organic Molecules
Photosynthesis
The Biosynthesis of Cell Constituents
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Key Experiment: Antimetabolites and Chemotherapy
Molecular Medicine: Phenylketonuria
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
Heredity, Genes, and DNA
Genes and Chromosomes
Genes and Enzymes
Identification of DNA as the Genetic Material
The Structure of DNA
Replication of DNA
Expression of Genetic Information
Colinearity of Genes and Proteins
The Role of Messenger RNA
The Genetic Code
RNA Viruses and Reverse Transcription
Recombinant DNA
Restriction Endonucleases
Generation of Recombinant DNA Molecules
Vectors for Recombinant DNA
DNA Sequencing
Expression of Cloned Genes
Detection of Nucleic Acids and Proteins
Amplification of DNA by the Polymerase Chain Reaction
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Antibodies as Probes for Proteins
Gene Function in Eukaryotes
Genetic Analysis in Yeasts
Gene Transfer in Plants and Animals
Mutagenesis of Cloned DNAs
Introducing Mutations into Cellular Genes
Interfering with Cellular Gene Expression
Key Experiment: The DNA Provirus Hypothesis
Molecular Medicine: HIV and AIDS
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
The Flow of Genetic Information
The Organization and Sequences of Cellular Genomes
The Complexity of Eukaryotic Genomes
Introns and Exons
Repetitive DNA Sequences
Gene Duplication and Pseudogenes
The Composition of Higher Eukaryotic Genomes
Chromosomes and Chromatin
Chromatin
Centromeres
Telomeres
The Sequences of Complete Genomes
Prokaryotic Genomes
The Yeast Genome
The Genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster
Plant Genomes
The Human Genome
The Genomes of Other Vertebrates
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Systematic Screens of Gene Function
Regulation of Gene Expression
Variation among Individuals and Genomic Medicine
Key Experiment: The Discovery of Introns
Key Experiment: The Human Genome
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Replication, Maintenance, and Rearrangements of Genomic DNA
DNA Replication
DNA Polymerases
The Replication Fork
The Fidelity of Replication
Origins and the Initiation of Replication
Telomeres and Telomerase: Maintaining the Ends of Chromosomes
DNA Repair
Direct Reversal of DNA Damage
Excision Repair
Translesion DNA Synthesis
Recombinational Repair
Recombination between Homologous DNA Sequences
Models of Homologous Recombination
Enzymes Involved in Homologous Recombination
DNA Rearrangements
Site-Specific Recombination
Transposition via DNA Intermediates
Transposition via RNA Intermediates
Gene Amplification
Key Experiment: Rearrangement of Immunoglobulin Genes
Molecular Medicine: Colon Cancer and DNA Repair
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
RNA Synthesis and Processing
Transcription in Prokaryotes
RNA Polymerase and Transcription
Repressors and Negative Control of Transcription
Positive Control of Transcription
Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases and General Transcription Factors
Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases
General Transcription Factors and Initiation of Transcription by RNA Polymerase II
Transcription by RNA Polymerases I and III
Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
cis-Acting Regulatory Sequences: Promoters and Enhancers
Transcription Factor Binding Sites
Transcriptional Regulatory Proteins
Structure and Function of Transcriptional Activators
Eukaryotic Repressors
Relationship of Chromatin Structure to Transcription
Regulation of Transcription by Noncoding RNAs
DNA Methylation
RNA Processing and Turnover
Processing of Ribosomal and Transfer RNAs
Processing of mRNA in Eukaryotes
Splicing Mechanisms
Alternative Splicing
RNA Editing
RNA Degradation
Key Experiment: Isolation of a Eukaryotic Transcription Factor
Key Experiment: The Discovery of snRNPs
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Protein Synthesis, Processing, and Regulation
Translation of mRNA
Transfer RNAs
The Ribosome
The Organization of mRNAs and the Initiation of Translation
The Process of Translation
Regulation of Translation
Protein Folding and Processing
Chaperones and Protein Folding
Enzymes that Catalyze Protein Folding
Protein Cleavage
Glycosylation
Attachment of Lipids
Regulation of Protein Function
Regulation by Small Molecules
Protein Phosphorylation
Protein-Protein Interactions
Protein Degradation
The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway
Lysosomal Proteolysis
Key Experiment: Catalytic Role of Ribosomal RNA
Molecular Medicine: Antibiotic Resistance and the Ribosome
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cell Structure and Function
The Nucleus
The Nuclear Envelope and Traffic between the Nucleus and the Cytoplasm
Structure of the Nuclear Envelope
The Nuclear Pore Complex
Selective Transport of Proteins to and from the Nucleus
Regulation of Nuclear Protein Import
Transport of RNAs
Internal Organization of the Nucleus
Chromosomes and Higher-Order Chromatin Structure
Sub-Compartments within the Nucleus
The Nucleolus and rRNA Processing
Ribosomal RNA Genes and the Organization of the Nucleolus
Transcription and Processing of rRNA
Ribosome Assembly
Key Experiment: Nuclear Lamina Diseases
Molecular Medicine: Identification of Nuclear Localization Signals
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Protein Sorting and Transport: The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, and Lysosomes
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The Endoplasmic Reticulum and Protein Secretion
Targeting Proteins to the Endoplasmic Reticulum
Insertion of Proteins into the ER Membrane
Protein Folding and Processing in the ER
Quality Control in the ER
The Smooth ER and Lipid Synthesis
Export of Proteins and Lipids from the ER
The Golgi Apparatus
Organization of the Golgi
Protein Glycosylation within the Golgi
Lipid and Polysaccharide Metabolism in the Golgi
Protein Sorting and Export from the Golgi Apparatus
The Mechanism of Vesicular Transport
Experimental Approaches to Understanding Vesicular Transport
Cargo Selection, Coat Proteins, and Vesicle Budding
Vesicle Fusion
Lysosomes
Lysosomal Acid Hydrolases
Endocytosis and Lysosome Formation
Phagocytosis and Autophagy
Key Experiment: The Signal Hypothesis
Molecular Medicine: Gaucher Disease
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Bioenergetics and Metabolism: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Peroxisomes
Mitochondria
Organization and Function of Mitochondria
The Genetic System of Mitochondria
Protein Import and Mitochondrial Assembly
The Mechanism of Oxidative Phosphorylation
The Electron Transport Chain
Chemiosmotic Coupling
Transport of Metabolites across the Inner Membrane
Chloroplasts and Other Plastids
The Structure and Function of Chloroplasts
The Chloroplast Genome
Import and Sorting of Chloroplast Proteins
Other Plastids
Photosynthesis
Electron Flow through Photosystems I and II
Cyclic Electron Flow
ATP Synthesis
Peroxisomes
Functions of Peroxisomes
Peroxisome Assembly
Key Experiment: The Chemiosmotic Theory
Molecular Medicine: Diseases of Mitochondria: Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
The Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement
Structure and Organization of Actin Filaments
Assembly and Disassembly of Actin Filaments
Organization of Actin Filaments
Association of Actin Filaments with the Plasma Membrane
Protrusions of the Cell Surface
Actin, Myosin, and Cell Movement
Muscle Contraction
Contractile Assemblies of Actin and Myosin in Nonmuscle Cells
Nonmuscle Myosins
Formation of Protrusions and Cell Movement
Intermediate Filaments
Intermediate Filament Proteins
Assembly of Intermediate Filaments
Intracellular Organization of Intermediate Filaments
Functions of Keratins and Neurofilaments: Diseases of the Skin and Nervous System
Microtubules
Structure and Dynamic Organization of Microtubules
Assembly of Microtubules
Organization of Microtubules within Cells
Microtubule Motors and Movement
Identification of Microtubule Motor Proteins
Cargo Transport and Intracellular Organization
Cilia and Flagella
Reorganization of Microtubules during Mitosis
Chromosome Movement
Key Experiment: Expression of Mutant Keratin Causes Abnormal Skin Development
Key Experiment The Isolation of Kinesin
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
The Plasma Membrane
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
The Phospholipid Bilayer
Membrane Proteins
Mobility of Membrane Proteins
The Glycocalyx
Transport of Small Molecules
Passive Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion and Carrier Proteins
Ion Channels
Active Transport Driven by ATP Hydrolysis
Active Transport Driven by Ion Gradients
Endocytosis
Phagocytosis
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Protein Trafficking in Endocytosis
Key Experiment: The LDL Receptor
Molecular Medicine: Cystic Fibrosis
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cell Walls, the Extracellular Matrix, and Cell Interactions
Cell Wall
Bacterial Cell Walls
Eukaryotic Cell Walls
The Extracellular Matrix and Cell-Matrix Interactions
Matrix Structural Proteins
Matrix Polysaccharides
Matrix Adhesion Proteins
Cell-Matrix Interactions
Cell-Cell Interactions
Adhesion Junctions
Tight Junctions
Gap Junctions
Plasmodesmata
Key Experiment: The Characterization of Integrin
Molecular Medicine: Gap Junction Diseases
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cell Regulation
Cell Signaling
Signaling Molecules and Their Receptors
Modes of Cell-Cell Signaling
Steroid Hormones and the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily
Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide
Neurotransmitters
Peptide Hormones and Growth Factors
Eicosanoids
Plant Hormones
Functions of Cell Surface Receptors
G Protein-Coupled Receptors
Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Cytokine Receptors and Nonreceptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Receptors Linked to Other Enzymatic Activities
Pathways of Intracellular Signal Transduction
The cAMP Pathway: Second Messengers and Protein Phosphorylation
Cyclic GMP
Phospholipids and Ca[superscript 2+]
The PI 3-Kinase/Akt and mTOR Pathways
MAP Kinase Pathways
The JAK/STAT and TGF-[beta]/Smad Pathways
NF-[kappa]B Signaling
The Hedgehog, Wnt, and Notch Pathways
Signal Transduction and the Cytoskeleton
Integrins and Signal Transduction
Regulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton
Signaling Networks
Feedback and Crosstalk
Networks of Cellular Signal Transduction
Key Experiment: The Src Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
Molecular Medicine: Cancer: Signal Transduction and the ras Oncogenes
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
The Cell Cycle
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
Phases of the Cell Cycle
Regulation of the Cell Cycle by Cell Growth and Extracellular Signals
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Restricting DNA Replication to Once per Cell Cycle
Regulators of Cell Cycle Progression
Protein Kinases and Cell Cycle Regulation
Families of Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Growth Factors and the Regulation of G[subscript 1] Cdk's
DNA Damage Checkpoints
The Events of M Phase
Stages of Mitosis
Cdk1/Cyclin B and Progression to Metaphase
The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint and Progression to Anaphase
Cytokinesis
Meiosis and Fertilization
The Process of Meiosis
Regulation of Oocyte Meiosis
Fertilization
Key Experiment: The Discovery of MPF
Key Experiment: The Identification of Cyclin
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cell Death and Cell Renewal
Programmed Cell Death
The Events of Apoptosis
Caspases: The Executioners of Apoptosis
Central Regulators of Apoptosis: The Bcl-2 Family
Signaling Pathways that Regulate Apoptosis
Stem Cells and the Maintenance of Adult Tissues
Proliferation of Differentiated Cells
Stem Cells
Medical Applications of Adult Stem Cells
Embryonic Stem Cells and Therapeutic Cloning
Embryonic Stem Cells
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Key Experiment: Identification of Genes Required for Programmed Cell Death
Key Experiment: Culture of Embryonic Stem Cells
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Cancer
The Development and Causes of Cancer
Types of Cancer
The Development of Cancer
Causes of Cancer
Properties of Cancer Cells
Transformation of Cells in Culture
Tumor Viruses
Hepatitis B and C Viruses
SV40 and Polyomavirus
Papillomaviruses
Adenoviruses
Herpesviruses
Retroviruses
Oncogenes
Retroviral Oncogenes
Proto-Oncogenes
Oncogenes in Human Cancer
Functions of Oncogene Products
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Identification of Tumor Suppressor Genes
Functions of Tumor Suppressor Gene Products
Roles of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in Tumor Development
Molecular Approaches to Cancer Treatment
Prevention and Early Detection
Molecular Diagnosis
Treatment
Key Experiment: The Discovery of Proto-Oncogenes
Molecular Medicine STI-571: Cancer Treatment Targeted against the bcr/abl Oncogene
Summary and Key Terms
Questions
References and Further Reading
Answers to Questions
Glossary
Index
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