Manufacturing Processes and Materials

ISBN-10: 0872635171
ISBN-13: 9780872635173
Edition: 4th 2000
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Book details

List price: $105.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Society of Manufacturing Engineers
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 842
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long
Weight: 4.818
Language: English

Manufacturing Foundations
Manufacturingp. 1
Hand Tools to Machine Toolsp. 1
Early Hand Tools
The Iron Age
Industrial Revolution
Automation
Types of Productsp. 5
Organization for Manufacturingp. 5
Types of Manufacturing Systems
Small Organizations
Large Organizations
Manufacturing Engineering
Questionsp. 10
The Competitive Challenge in Manufacturing
Importance of Manufacturing as an Economic Activityp. 13
State of the Industryp. 13
Labor Productivityp. 14
International Competitivenessp. 16
Balance of Trade
Trade Agreements
Manufacturing Innovationsp. 18
Machine Tools
Manufacturing Systems
Questionsp. 21
Material Properties and Testing
Metal Structuresp. 23
Unit Cells
Changes in Crystal Structure
Crystalline Structure and Physical Properties
Fracture
Fundamentals of Metal Alloysp. 27
Metallic Solid Solutions and Compounds
How Alloys Melt
Equilibrium Diagrams
Alloys in the Solid State
Grain Growth
Metallurgy of Iron and Steelp. 33
Iron and Iron Carbide Solid Solutions
Pearlite
Hypoeutectoid and Hypereutectoid Steels
Martensite
Other Structures of Steel
Practical Aspects of Carbon in Steel
Grain Size of Steel
Solidification of Cast Iron
Testing of Engineering Materialsp. 38
Tension Test
Hardness Testing
Notched-bar Impact Testing
Bend Tests
High-temperature Tests
Fatigue Testing
Fracture Toughness Tests
Nodestructive Testing
Corrosion Testing
Questionsp. 52
Problemsp. 53
Iron and Steel
Iron, Steel, and Powerp. 57
Iron Makingp. 57
The Blast Furnace and its Chemistryp. 59
Steelmakingp. 59
The Basic Oxygen Process
The Electric-furnace Process
Finishing and Ingot Teemingp. 64
Special Techniques in Steel Refiningp. 65
Aluminump. 65
Copperp. 66
Miscellaneous Metalsp. 68
Magnesium
Zinc
Lead
Tin
Titanium
Tungsten
Steelp. 69
Effects of Alloying Elements in Ferrous Alloysp. 69
Carbon Steelsp. 71
Alloy Steelsp. 72
Questionsp. 76
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys
Effects of Alloying on Propertiesp. 79
Aluminump. 80
Aluminum Alloys
Magnesiump. 81
Magnesium Alloys
Copperp. 83
Copper Alloys
Zincp. 84
Zinc Alloys
Tianiump. 85
Titanium Alloys
Nickel and its Alloysp. 86
The White Metalsp. 86
Refractory Metalsp. 86
Precious Metalsp. 87
Questionsp. 87
Enhancing Material Properties
Heat Treatment Principlesp. 89
Heat Treatment of Nonallotropic Alloysp. 90
Heat Treatment Processes for Steelsp. 91
Steel Hardening
Annealing of Steel
Surface-hardening of Steelp. 99
Induction-hardening
Flame-hardening
Comparison of Methods
Carburizing to Case-harden
Cyaniding
Nitriding
Laser Beam Hardening
Electron Beam Hardening
Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Metalsp. 103
Heat-treating Furnacesp. 103
Hearth Furnaces
Rotary Furnaces
Continuous Furnaces
Furnace Atmospheres
Molten Baths for Heat Treating
Bath Furnaces
Design Considerations for Heat Treatmentp. 109
Cost Considerationsp. 109
Process Automationp. 109
Questionsp. 109
Nonmetallic Materials
Nonmetallic Material Familiesp. 111
Plastic Materialsp. 112
Resins and Polymers
Additives
Plastic Products
Thermosetting Plastics
Thermoplastics
Elastomers (Rubbers)
Silicones
Adhesives
Plastics Processingp. 126
Compression Molding
Transfer Molding
Injection Molding
Casting
Extrusion and Pultrusion
Foams
Laminates and Reinforced Plastic Molding
Forming Plastic Sheets
Shell Molding
Joining Plastics
Machining Plastics
Rubber Processing
Design of Molded Plastic Partsp. 135
Ceramicsp. 136
Structure
Clay Products
Refractory Materials
Glass
Cermets
Mechanical and Electrical Applications
Ceramic Cutting Tools
Questionsp. 138
Problemsp. 139
Metal Casting Expendable Molds
Sand Casting Principlesp. 141
The Behavior of Cast Metal
The Mold and Its Components
Making Moldsp. 146
Hand Tools for Molding
Mold-making Steps
Molding Machines
Coresp. 149
Core Making
Patternsp. 153
Types
Material
Layout
Shrinkage Allowance
Other Allowances
Draft
Fillets
Locating Pads
Color Coding
Sands and Other Mold Ingredientsp. 156
Molding Sand
Core Sand
Melting Metals in the Foundryp. 161
The Cupola
Melting of Nonferrous Metals
Pouring and Cleaning Castingsp. 168
Pouring Methods
Cleaning Castings
Shell Mold Castingp. 169
Advantages
Metallurgy of Castingsp. 171
Cast Iron
Nonferrous Cast Alloys
Design of Castingsp. 173
Draft
Tolerances
Questionsp. 174
Problemsp. 181
Metal Casting Reusable Molds
Metal Mold Casting Processesp. 183
Permanent Mold Casting
Low-pressure Casting
Slush Casting
Die Casting
Die-casting Dies
Die-casting Machines
Finishing Die Castings
Centrifugal Casting
Comparison of Metal Mold-casting Methods
Designing Castings for Metal Molds
Plaster Mold Castingp. 191
Precision Investment Castingp. 193
Advantages and Limitations
Continuous Castingp. 195
Applications
Advantages and Limitations
Questionsp. 196
Problemsp. 196
Powder Metallurgy
Introductionp. 199
Basic Powder Metallurgy Processp. 199
Metal Powder Production and Blendingp. 200
Fabrication Processesp. 201
Pressing or Compaction
Sintering
Finishing Operationsp. 206
Metal Compositesp. 207
Design of Powder Metal Partsp. 207
Process Automationp. 207
Questionsp. 208
Problemsp. 209
Hot and Cold Working of Metals
Wrought Metalsp. 211
Hot Workingp. 211
Cold Workingp. 212
Warm Workingp. 214
Rollingp. 214
Principles
Rolling Mills
Hot-rolling Steels
Cold Rolling
Quality and Cost
Cold Drawingp. 219
Process
Manufacture of Pipe and Tubingp. 220
Butt-welded Pipe
Lap-welded Pipe
Seamless Tubing
Forgingp. 223
Heating the Work
Hammer Forging
Drop Forging
Drop Hammers
Press Forging
High-energy-rate Forging
Upset Forging
Forging with Rolls
Quality and Cost
Extrusionp. 233
Principles
Hot Extrusion
Cold Extrusion
Questionsp. 237
Problemsp. 239
Metal Shearing and Forming
Introductionp. 243
Metal Shearing Operationsp. 243
Types
Principles
Bendingp. 247
Punch and Die Bending
Tube and Structural Shape Bending
Cold-roll Forming
Drawing and Stretchingp. 252
Rigid Die Drawing
Flexible Die Drawing and Forming
Hydrostatic Forming
Metal Spinning
Roll Turning
Stretching and Shrinking
High-energy-rate Forming
Ultrasonic Aid to Forming
Squeezingp. 263
Cold Heading
Swaging
Sizing, Coining, and Hobbing
Ironing
Riveting, Staking, and Stitching
Pressesp. 266
Frame and Bed
Press Ram
Press Drives
Hydraulic Presses
Power Transmission
Applications
Specialized Presses
Press Brakes and Shears
Hole-punching Machines
High-production Presses
Press Tools and Accessoriesp. 279
Dies
Stock-feeding Devices
Safety Devices
Questionsp. 285
Problemsp. 287
Welding Processes
Introductionp. 291
Common Welding Process Classificationsp. 291
Electric-arc Weldingp. 291
Parameters
Applications
Electrodes
Manual Arc Welding
Automatic Arc Welding
Sources of Current
Gas-shielded Arc Welding
Plasma-arc Welding
Submerged-arc Welding
Vertical Welding
Stud Welding
Energy-ray Weldingp. 302
Electron-beam Welding
Laser Welding
Resistance Weldingp. 306
Fundamentals
Equipment
Spot Welding
Projection Welding
Seam Welding
Upset-butt Welding
Flash-butt Welding
Percussion Welding
Thermit Weldingp. 314
Principles
Procedures
Applications
Gas Weldingp. 316
Fuel Gases
Oxyacetylene Gas Welding
Solid-state Weldingp. 318
Friction Welding
Ultrasonic Welding
Explosion Welding
Diffusion Bonding
Welding Fundamentalsp. 320
Welded Joints and Welding Symbols
Metallurgy of Welding
Control of Weld Quality
Cost Comparisonsp. 326
Welding Costs
Comparison of Welding and Casting
Comparison of Welding and Riveting
Comparison of Arc-Welding Processes
Process Automationp. 330
Questionsp. 330
Problemsp. 332
Other Cutting and Joining Processes
Introductionp. 335
Thermal Cutting Processesp. 335
Oxygen Cutting
Electric Arc Cutting
Plasma-arc Cutting (PAC)
Metal Sprayingp. 341
Principles and Methods
Applications
Surfacing and Hard-facingp. 343
Principles
Procedures
Braze Welding, Brazing, and Solderingp. 344
Braze Welding
Brazing
Soldering
Process Automation
Mechanical Fastening or Joiningp. 347
Nonpermanent Fasteners
Permanent Fasteners
Adhesive Bondingp. 349
Questionsp. 349
Quality Assurance
Interchangeable Manufacturep. 351
Quality Assurancep. 351
Organizational Approaches
Components of the Quality Assurance Function
Statistical Methodsp. 355
Common Causes of Variation
Special Causes of Variation
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Tools
Process Capability
Sampling Inspection
Manufacturing Specificationsp. 363
Tolerances
Clearance
Development of Manufacturing Specifications
Questionsp. 371
Problemsp. 372
Measurement and Gaging
Standardsp. 375
Length Standard
End Standards
Instrumentsp. 377
Principal Technologies
Selection
Basic Linear Measuring Instruments
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)p. 399
Moving Bridge CMM
Contacting Probes
Noncontacting Sensors
Automatic Gaging Systemsp. 402
Measuring with Light Raysp. 402
Interferometry
Optical Tooling
Surface Qualityp. 406
Surface Characteristics
Surface Quality Specifications
Surface Finish and Cost
Measurement of Surface Finish
Questionsp. 410
Problemsp. 411
How Metals Are Machined
Importance of Metal Machiningp. 413
Basic Processesp. 413
Surface Form Generation
Machining Parameters
Machine Tool History
Mechanics of Metal Cuttingp. 416
How a Tool Penetrates Metal
Types of Chips
Cutting Theory
Oblique Cutting
Metal Machining Conditionsp. 419
Effect of Cutting Speed
Effect of Feed
Effect of Rake Angle
Hot Machining
Tool Wear
Vibration and Chatter
Metal-cutting Toolsp. 423
Tool Material
Shapes and Forms
Cutting Fluidsp. 435
Purpose
Types
Questionsp. 437
Problemsp. 438
Turning, Boring, and Facing
Turning Operationsp. 441
Plain or Straight Turning
Chuck Work
Taper Turning and Boring
The Lathep. 442
Principal Parts
Power Feed
Types
Sizes
Tracer Lathe
Accessories And Attachmentsp. 447
Chucks
Collets
Centers and Drivers
Rests
Digital Readout Systems
Attachments
Lathe Operationsp. 452
Practical Tolerances and Surface Finishes
Production Turning Machinesp. 453
Turret Lathes
Automatic Turning Machines
Machining Time and Material Removal Ratep. 465
Questionsp. 467
Problemsp. 468
Process Planning and Cost Evaluation
Introductionp. 471
Preproduction Process Planningp. 471
Design for Manufacturability
Planning Methods and Procedures
Process Plan Developmentp. 475
Routing Information
Process Mapping
Operation Sheets
Economics of Process Planningp. 482
General Considerations for Machine Tool Selectionp. 482
Size and Capacity
Strength and Power
Other Considerations
How Costs are Estimated and Comparedp. 484
Productive Time
How Operation Time is Estimated
Comparison of Engine Lathe and Turret Lathe
Finding the Lowest Cost for an Operation
Equal Cost Point
Special Considerations
Questionsp. 491
Problemsp. 492
Drilling and Allied Operations
Drills, Boring Tools, and Reamersp. 496
Common Drills
Drill Sizes and Materials
Drill Angles and Edges
Deep Hole Drills
Boring Tools
Reamers
Drilling Machinesp. 501
Vertical Drill Presses
Multispindle Drill Presses
Radial Drill Presses
Sizes of Drilling Machines
Drilling Machine Accessories and Attachmentsp. 506
Toolholders and Drivers
Multiple-spindle Drill Heads
Workholding Devices
Positioning Tables
Fixtures and Jigs
Boring Machinesp. 510
Precision Production-boring Machines
Precision Jig-boring Machines
Jig Grinding Machines
Jig Boring Operations
Drilling and Boring Operationsp. 513
Accuracy
Speeds and Feeds
Drilling Time and Cost
Cutting Forces and Power
Process Planningp. 517
Design for Manufacturing
Process Selection and Operation Sequence
Questionsp. 518
Problemsp. 520
Milling
Evolution of Flat Surface Generating Processesp. 523
Milling Processp. 523
Milling Cutters and Driversp. 524
Kinds of Cutters
Arbors, Collets, and Adapters
Milling Machinesp. 526
General-purpose Machines
Production Machines
Machine Sizes
Planer-type Machines
Horizontal Boring, Drilling, and Milling Machines
Machine Attachments
Process Planningp. 536
Performance
Economical Milling
Speed, Feed, and Depth of Cut
Estimating Time and Power
Comparison with Other Operations
Questionsp. 542
Problemsp. 543
Broaching and Sawing
Broachingp. 547
Types of Broaches
Pullers and Fixtures
Machines
Operations
Broaching Compared with Other Operations
Sawingp. 557
Saw Characteristics
Machines
Operations
Questionsp. 563
Problemsp. 563
Abrasives, Grinding Wheels, and Grinding Operations
Abrasivesp. 567
Conventional Abrasives
Superabrasives
Grain Size
Grinding Wheelsp. 570
Properties
Manufacture
Other Abrasive Productsp. 573
Coated Abrasives
Polishing Wheels
Abrasive Belts
Grinding Operationsp. 574
The Factors of Cost
Balancing the Grinding Wheel
Dressing and Truing the Grinding Wheel
Theory
Cutting Fluids
Economics
Questionsp. 585
Problemsp. 587
Grinding Machines and Methods
Precision Grindersp. 589
Cylindrical Center-type Grinders
Chucking Grinders
Centerless Grinders
Comparison of Center-type and Centerless Grinders
Internal Grinding
Surface Grinders
CNC Grinding Machines
Disk Grinders
Thread Grinders
Tool and Cutter Grinders
Miscellaneous Grinders
Abrasive Belt Grinders
Nonprecision Grindersp. 606
Swing-frame Grinders
Floor-stand and Bench Grinders
Portable and Flexible-shaft Grinders
Standard Tool and Cutter Grinders
Grinding Compared with Other Operationsp. 606
Questionsp. 609
Problemsp. 610
Ultra-Finishing Operations
Lappingp. 613
Purpose
Process
Machines
Honingp. 615
Purpose
Process
Machines
Fine Grinding
Microfinishing or Superfinishingp. 618
Purpose
Process
Machines and Attachments
Ultrasonic Machining
Burnishing and Bearingizingp. 621
Roller Burnishing
Bearingizing
Nonprecision Deburring and Finishing Processesp. 623
Polishing
Buffing
Power Brushing
Tumbling and Vibratory Finishing
Shot Blasting and Sandblasting
Deburring
Process Planningp. 627
Questionsp. 628
Other Surface Enhancement Processes
Cleaningp. 631
Cleaners
Methods
Pickling and Oxidizing
Surface Coatingsp. 633
Conversion Coatings
Organic Coatings
Hot-dip Plating
Electroplating
Electroforming
Vacuum Deposition
Other Metal-coating Processes
Vitreous Coatings
Green Manufacturingp. 643
Environmental Regulations
Questionsp. 644
Problemsp. 645
Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes
Chemical Machining Processesp. 647
Chemical Milling
Photo-etching
Thermochemical Machining
Electrochemical/Electrolytic Machining Processesp. 649
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Electrochemical Grinding
Electrogel Machining (EGM)
Thermal Machining Processesp. 656
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
Waterjet Machining (WJM)p. 665
Questionsp. 665
Problemsp. 666
Thread and Gear Manufacturing
Screw Threads and Screwsp. 669
Definitions
Features
Forms
Standards
Classes
Measurement
Making Screw Threads
Gearsp. 683
Gear Tooth Curves
Elements of Gear Teeth
Types of Gears
Gear Manufacture
Gear Inspection
Questionsp. 704
Problemsp. 705
Manufacturing Systems
Introductionp. 709
Manufacturing Systemsp. 709
Classification
Contemporary Manufacturing Technologiesp. 714
Just-in-time (JIT) Manufacturing
Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)
Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs)
Group Technology (GT)
Robotics
Automation
Emerging Technologiesp. 723
Total Quality Management (TQM)
Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing
Concurrent Engineering (CE)
Components of an Integrated Manufacturing Systemp. 728
Manufacturing and Assembly Cells
Cell Linkages
Systems Integration Elements
The New Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel
Questionsp. 734
Flexible Program Automation
Classes of Automationp. 739
Fixed Program Automation
Manned Cell Partial Automationp. 749
Material Handling
Work Positioning and Clamping
Inspection
Machine Operation
Digital Numerical Control
Fuzzy Control Logic
Unmanned Cell Automationp. 754
Machining Centers
Decouplers
Robots
Automated Inspection
Computer Integrationp. 759
Computer-aided Design
Computer-aided Process Planning
Computer-aided Manufacturing
Computer Integration of an Unmanned Cell
Economic Justification of an Automated Systemp. 762
Questionsp. 764
Problemp. 764
Numerical Control
Introductionp. 767
Elements of Numerical Controlp. 767
NC Operation
The Coordinate System
Positioning
Closed- and Open-loop Systems
Adaptive Control
Numerical Control (NC) Systemsp. 777
NC Machines
Machining Centers
NC Accuracy
NC Adjuncts
NC Measuring and Inspection Machines
Programming for Numerical Controlp. 782
Manual Programming
Computer-assisted NC Programming
Selection of a Programming Methodp. 801
NC in the Total Manufacturing Systemp. 802
Economics of Numerical Controlp. 803
Questionsp. 805
Problemsp. 806
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