Ecology of Coastal Waters With Implications for Management

ISBN-10: 0865425507

ISBN-13: 9780865425507

Edition: 2nd 2000 (Revised)

Authors: K. H. Mann

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This revised edition of Ecology of Coastal Waters consists of four parts and eighteen chapters, with a list of references and suggested readings at the back of the book.
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Book details

List price: $148.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/18/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Preface
The Subject and the Approach
Introduction
Vulnerability of coastal waters and the need for management
The high productivity of coastal waters
The high productivity of phytoplankton
The productivity of marine macrophytes
Secondary production in coastal waters
The ecosystem approach
Techniques of ecosystem research
Budgets and compartmental flow diagrams
Estimating mean flows
Process models and dynamic simulation models
Goals of ecosystem management
Control of exploitation of stocks
Maintenance of adequate but not excessive primary production
Maintenance of habitat
Maintenance of species diversity
Outlines of ecosystem chapters
Estuarine Ecosystems and Their Components
Estuaries: Their Physical Properties in Relation to Biological Functioning
Introduction
Geological origins of estuarine basins
Physical structure and functioning of estuaries
Freshwater runoff
Tidal flushing
Interactions between buoyancy and mixing
The Coriolis effect
Influence of wind
Physical-biological interactions in estuarine ecosystems
Interactions with flowering plants
Interactions with seaweeds
Interactions with phytoplankton
Interactions with zooplankton
Interactions with fish and actively swimming invertebrates
The biological consequences of changing freshwater runoff
Correlations with natural variability
Correlations with man-made changes
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Salt Marshes
Introduction
The primary producers
The magnitude of primary production
Factors influencing variability of primary production
Contributions by algae
Nutrient fluxes in the system
Fluxes of nitrogen
Fluxes of sulfur
The consumers
Consumption of Spartina by herbivores
Decomposition and utilization by detritivores
Topics of special interest: salt marshes and adjacent watersheds
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Salt-marsh management: a Florida case history
Salt marshes, mangroves, and oil spills
Mangroves
Introduction
The primary producers
The magnitude of primary production
Nutrient fluxes in the system
The consumers: invertebrates and fish in mangrove forests
Study of a mangrove system in Queensland, Australia
Topics of special interest: importance of mangroves for coastal fisheries
Summary of the science
Implications for management
The exploitation of mangroves
Concerns about global warming
Mangroves and sea-level rise
Restoration of mangroves in northwest India
Seagrass Systems
Introduction
The primary producers
The magnitude of seagrass productivity
Techniques for measurement
The effect of water movement
The contribution by epiphytes and macroalgae
Nutrient fluxes in the system
Consumers of seagrass production
Grazers
Browsers on epiphytes
Detritivores
Carnivores
Topics of special interest: deterioration of seagrass systems
Decline associated with disease
Declines associated with disturbance and light attenuation
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Value of seagrass beds
Threats to seagrass beds
Restoration of seagrass beds
Restoration of seagrass beds
The Fate of Macrophyte Detritus
Introduction
The pathways of detritus processing
Colonization of detritus by microorganisms
Consumption of morphous detritus by animals
Digestion of cellulose by marine animals
Microorganisms as intermediaries
Experiments with Capitella
The importance of dissolved organic matter
The overall fate of macrophyte detritus
Results of stable isotope studies
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Estuarine Planktonic Systems
Introduction
The primary producers
How phytoplankton cells obtain their nutrients
The magnitude and variability of primary production
Control by seasonal changes in solar radiation
Estuarine factors modifying the basic pattern of phytoplankton production
Observed magnitude and seasonality of phytoplankton production
Nutrient fluxes in estuaries
Nutrient sources in relatively unpolluted environments
Nutrient sources in heavily polluted environments
The consumers: planktonic secondary production in estuaries
Zooplankton communities
Vertical migration of zooplankton in estuaries
Nanoplankton, picoplankton, and the microbial loop
The meroplankton: estuaries as planktonic nurseries
Topics of special interest: toxic and other nuisance algal blooms
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Eutrophication
Introduction of alien species
The cleanup of the estuary of the River Thames
Estuarine Benthic Systems
Introduction
The primary producers and the sedimentation of organic carbon
Benthic microalgae
Sedimentation of organic matter to the benthos
The magnitude of organic input to the benthos
Nutrient fluxes: processing of organic carbon and regeneration of nutrients
Macrobenthic invertebrates and bioturbation
Processing of organic carbon in the aerobic layer
Organisms processing organic carbon in the anaerobic layer
Relative importance of aerobic and anaerobic pathways
Sum of aerobic and anaerobic processes
The importance of denitrification
Benthic secondary production
Biomass and production of single-species populations of detritivores
Bivalve reefs as distinct ecosystems
Biomass and production of benthic predators
Topics of special interest: community structure and the role of disturbance
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Estuarine benthic contamination and the fate of beluga whales
Nekton: Fish and Swimming Invertebrates
Introduction
Common estuarine nekton
Fish in the estuarine ecosystem
Estuarine residents
Saltwater spawners
Estuarine spawners
Anadromous and catadromous species
Commercial fish stocks in estuaries
History of the concept of estuarine dependence
Estuarine influences on fish production
The influence of primary production on fish and shellfish production
The influence of river runoff on fish and shellfish production
Global magnitude of estuarine fisheries
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Protecting the freshwater inflow
Protecting the wetland vegetation
Protecting the tidal regime
The Integrated Functioning of Estuaries
Introduction
Barataria Bay: a system with large areas of marshes
Narragansett Bay: a system dominated by phytoplankton
North Inlet Estuary: long-term studies of a pristine system
The upper Bay of Fundy and its relation to a proposed tidal power dam
The Baltic Sea: consequences of nutrient enrichment
The Westerschelde: a grossly polluted estuary
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Chesapeake Bay: a model for estuarine management?
The lagoon of Venice: conflicts between uses
Coastal Systems: Rocky Shores and Beaches
Intertidal Rocky Shores
Introduction
The primary producers
Seaweeds in general
Primary producers of the intertidal zone
The magnitude of primary production
Nutrient fluxes in the system
The consumers
Topics of special interest: community dynamics on rocky shores
The relative importance of predation and competition
The importance of recruitment
The importance of disturbance
Modification of predator-prey interactions by chemical and structural defenses
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Harvesting of rockweeds: the need for careful management
Subtidal Rocky Shores
Introduction
The primary producers
Laminaria
Ecklonia
Macrocystis
The magnitude and fate of primary production
Productivity of Laminaria
Productivity of Ecklonia
Productivity of Macrocystis
Production and fate of dissolved organic matter
Factors influencing kelp productivity
Nutrient fluxes in the system
Nutrient relationships of Laminaria
Nutrient relationships of Macrocystis
The consumers
Sea urchins as herbivores
Topics of special interest: what controls the abundance of sea urchins and the destruction of kelp beds?
Sea otters as controlling predators
Lobsters as controlling predators
Fish as controlling predators
Disease as a factor controlling sea urchin populations
The physical environment as a factor controlling sea urchin populations
Kelp-urchin interactions
Summary of the science
Implications for management
What is the potential for harvesting kelp?
Sea urchins: a threat or a harvestable resource?
Are lobster stocks dependent on kelp beds?
Could we farm kelp and use the biomass as an energy source?
Sandy Beaches
Introduction
Variation in beach type
Water filtration by the sand
The primary producers
The magnitude of primary production
Nutrient cycling
Dissipative beaches with surf zones
Beaches with stranded seaweed or seagrass
The consumers
Fauna of the surf zone
Consumer communities of intertidal sandy beaches
The special case of shores with accumulations of macrophytes
Topics of special interest: an analysis of ecosystem properties of a high-energy beach/surf zone
Structure of the system
Modeling and analysis
Summary of the science
Implications for management
The surf zone
Sand dunes
Sandy beaches, tourism, and turtles
Construction of an airfield runway destroys tourist beach
Shelf Ecosystems
Planktonic systems on the Continental Shelves
Introduction
The physical control of phytoplankton production on the shelves
Tidal mixing
Tidal or shelf-sea fronts
Internal waves and shelf-break fronts
Wind-driven coastal upwelling
Stratified water with minimal vertical mixing
The magnitude of primary production
Nutrient fluxes on the shelves
The consumers
The microzooplankton, or net zooplankton
The microbial food web: nanoplankton and picoplankton
The magnitude of planktonic secondary production on the shelves
Hard-bottom benthic communities
Topics of special interest: results obtained with new zooplankton sampling methods
The need for better sampling methods
A continuous plankton recorder
A multiple-net sampler
Acoustic techniques
Optical techniques
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Coastal Eutrophication
The exploitation of plankton
Death by suffocation in the Gulf of Mexico
The dangers of exploiting krill and other forage species
Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems
Introduction
The primary producers
The magnitude of primary production
The Peruvian upwelling system
The northwest African upwelling system
The Somalia upwelling system
Nutrient fluxes
New nutrients
Regenerated nutrients
Secondary production in upwelling systems
Zooplankton
Fish
Factors influencing year-class abundance of clupeids
Topics of special interest: environmental factors influencing changes in fish productivity
In the Peruvian system
In the North Pacific
In the Benguela upwelling system
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Coral Reefs
Introduction
Types of reef and their geological history
Global distribution of coral reefs
The functional zones of a coral reef
The primary producers
Reef-building corals
Coralline algae
Noncoralline algae
Phytoplankton
The calcification process
The magnitude of primary production
Rate of photosynthesis by corals
Rate of photosynthesis of algae
Primary production of the total reef system
Nutrient fluxes in the system
Fluxes of nitrogen
The consumers
The herbivores
The carnivores
Consumers causing reef destruction: the bioeroders
Topics of special interest: the dynamics of recruitment
Reproduction in corals
Coral recruitment on the Great Barrier Reef
The dynamics of recruitment of reef fishes
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Human impacts on coral reefs
Interactions of human disturbances with natural disturbances
A framework for management activity
Crown-of-thorns starfish wreak havoc on coral reefs
Cumulative effects of natural disturbance and human impacts on a Caribbean coral reef
Fish Production on the Continental Shelves
Introduction
The global picture
Fluctuations in the various species groups
The dynamics of fish stocks
Life histories and migrations
The retention of larvae in tidally mixed areas
The special role of shallow banks
Factors influencing survival of larvae and juveniles
Too few or too many spawning fish
Predation
Matches or mismatches in the timing of biological events
Turbulence and the aggregation of food
Turbulence and the ability of larvae to catch food
Large-scale correlations between physical factors and fish abundance
Climate changes and exceptional year classes on the Pacific coast of North America
Coherent changes in the landings of salmon in the United States, Canada, the former Soviet Union, and Japan
Coherent changes in catches of sardines in three widely separated Pacific stocks
Synchronous variation in recruitment in the Northwest Atlantic
Summary of the science
The management of fish stocks
The scope of the problem
The proposed courses of action
Problems of the fishery on Georges Bank, United States
Synthesis
The Whole-Ecosystem Approach to Managing Coastal Waters: Questions for the Future
Introduction
Recognition of Large Marine Ecosystems
Energy flow and mass balance models of coastal ecosystems
Dynamic simulations of coastal ecosystems
Ecosystem models based on biomass size spectra
Questions of scale and hierarchy in coastal ecosystems
Scale
Hierarchies
Impacts of human action: top-down and bottom-up effects
Top-down influences: the effect of fishing on fish community structure
Top-down influences: the effect of fishing gear on benthic communities
Summary of the science
Implications for management
Pollution
Habitat destruction
Overexploitation
Accelerated sea-level rise
Other consequences of global change
The future of the coastal zone
The World Bank promotes integrated coastal zone management
References
Suggestions for Further Reading: Recent Developments and More Advanced Topics
Index
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