Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure

ISBN-10: 0865420785
ISBN-13: 9780865420786
Edition: 2003
List price: $135.00 Buy it from $56.18 Rent it from $40.68
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Description: This text presents an introductory text to seismology, covering such topics as mathematical and computational background for basic seismology, basic seismological theories, seismology and earth structures, earthquakes and seismograms.

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Book details

List price: $135.00
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/16/1991
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.794
Language: English

This text presents an introductory text to seismology, covering such topics as mathematical and computational background for basic seismology, basic seismological theories, seismology and earth structures, earthquakes and seismograms.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Introduction
Overview
Models in seismology
Seismology and society
Seismic hazards and risks
Engineering seismology and earthquake engineering
Highways, bridges, dams, and pipelines
Tsunamis, landslides, and soil liquefaction
Earthquake forecasting
Earthquake prediction
Real-time warnings
Nuclear monitoring and treaty verification
Further reading
Basic Seismological Theory
Introduction
Waves on a string
Theory
Harmonic wave solution
Reflection and transmission
Energy in a harmonic wave
Normal modes of a string
Stress and strain
Introduction
Stress
Stress as a tensor
Principal stresses
Maximum shear stress and faulting
Deviatoric stresses
Equation of motion
Strain
Constitutive equations
Boundary conditions
Strain energy
Seismic waves
The seismic wave equation
Plane waves
Spherical waves
P and S waves
Energy in a plane wave
Snell's law
The layered medium approximation
Plane wave potentials for a layered medium
Angle of incidence and apparent velocity
Snell's law
Critical angle
Snell's law for SH waves
Ray parameter and slowness
Waveguides
Fermat's principle and geometric ray theory
Huygens' principle and diffraction
Plane wave reflection and transmission coefficients
Introduction
SH wave reflection and transmission coefficients
Energy flux for reflected and transmitted SH waves
Postcritical SH waves
P-SV waves at a free surface
Solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces
Examples
Surface waves
Introduction
Rayleigh waves in a homogeneous halfspace
Love waves in a layer over a halfspace
Love wave dispersion
Dispersion
Phase and group velocity
Dispersive signals
Surface wave dispersion studies
Tsunami dispersion
Normal modes of the earth
Motivation
Modes of a sphere
Spherical harmonics
Torsional modes
Spheroidal modes
Modes and propagating waves
Observing normal modes
Normal mode synthetic seismograms
Mode attenuation, splitting, and coupling
Further reading
Problems
Seismology and Earth Structure
Introduction
Refraction seismology
Flat layer method
Dipping layer method
Advanced analysis methods
Crustal structure
Rocks and minerals
Reflection seismology
Travel time curves for reflections
Intercept-slowness formulation for travel times
Multichannel data geometry
Common midpoint stacking
Signal enhancement
Deconvolution
Migration
Data processing sequence
Seismic waves in a spherical earth
Ray paths and travel times
Velocity distributions
Travel time curve inversion
Body wave travel time studies
Body wave phases
Core phases
Upper mantle structure
Lower mantle structure
Visualizing body waves
Anisotropic earth structure
General considerations
Transverse isotropy and azimuthal anisotropy
Anisotropy of minerals and rocks
Anisotropy of composite structures
Anisotropy in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere
Anisotropy in the mantle and the core
Attenuation and anelasticity
Wave attenuation
Geometric spreading
Multipathing
Scattering
Intrinsic attenuation
Quality factor, Q
Spectral resonance peaks
Physical dispersion due to anelasticity
Physical models for anelasticity
Q from crust to inner core
Composition of the mantle and the core
Density within the earth
Temperature in the earth
Composition of the mantle
Composition of D"
Composition of the core
Seismology and planetary evolution
Further reading
Problems
Earthquakes
Introduction
Focal mechanisms
Fault geometry
First motions
Body wave radiation patterns
Stereographic fault plane representation
Analytical representation of fault geometry
Waveform modeling
Basic model
Source time function
Body wave modeling
Surface wave focal mechanisms
Once and future earthquakes
Moment tensors
Equivalent forces
Single forces
Force couples
Double couples
Earthquake moment tensors
Isotropic and CLVD moment tensors
Moment tensor inversion
Interpretation of moment tensors
Earthquake geodesy
Measuring ground deformation
Coseismic deformation
Joint geodetic and seismological earthquake studies
Interseismic deformation and the seismic cycle
Source parameters
Magnitudes and moment
Source spectra and scaling laws
Stress drop and earthquake energy
Earthquake statistics
Frequency-magnitude relations
Aftershocks
Earthquake probabilities
Further reading
Problems
Seismology and Plate Tectonics
Introduction
Plate kinematics
Relative plate motions
Global plate motions
Space-based geodesy
Absolute plate motions
Spreading centers
Geometry of ridges and transforms
Evolution of the oceanic lithosphere
Ridge and transform earthquakes and processes
Subduction zones
Thermal models of subduction
Earthquakes in subducting slabs
Interplate trench earthquakes
Oceanic intraplate earthquakes and tectonics
Locations of oceanic intraplate seismicity
Forces and stresses in the oceanic lithosphere
Constraints on mantle viscosity
Continental earthquakes and tectonics
Continental plate boundary zones
Seismic, aseismic, transient, and permanent deformation
Continental intraplate earthquakes
Faulting and deformation in the earth
Rheology
Rock fracture and friction
Ductile flow
Strength of the lithosphere
Earthquakes and rock friction
Earthquakes and regional deformation
Further reading
Problems
Seismograms as Signals
Introduction
Fourier analysis
Fourier series
Complex Fourier series
Fourier transforms
Properties of Fourier transforms
Delta functions
Linear systems
Basic model
Convolution and deconvolution modeling
Finite length signals
Correlation
Discrete time series and transforms
Sampling of continuous data
The discrete Fourier transform
Properties of DFTs
The fast Fourier transform (FFT)
Digital convolution
Stacking
Random errors
Stacking examples
Seismometers and seismological networks
Introduction
The damped harmonic oscillator
Earth noise
Seismometers and seismographs
Digital recording
Types of networks
Global networks
Arrays
Regional networks
Further reading
Problems
Inverse Problems
Introduction
Earthquake location
Theory
Earthquake location for a homogeneous medium
Errors
Earthquake location for more complex geometries
Travel time tomography
Theory
Generalized inverse
Properties of the generalized inverse solution
Variants of the solution
Examples
Stratified earth structure
Earth structure from normal modes
Parameter and data space inversions
Features of the solutions
Inverting for plate motions
Method
Testing the results with x[superscript 2] and F-ratio tests
Further reading
Problems
Mathematical and Computational Background
Introduction
Complex numbers
Scalars and vectors
Definitions
Elementary vector operations
Scalar products
Vector products
Index notation
Vector spaces
Matrix algebra
Definitions
Determinant
Inverse
Systems of linear equations
Solving systems of equations on a computer
Vector transformations
Coordinate transformations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
Symmetric matrix eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonalization, and decomposition
Vector calculus
Scalar and vector fields
Gradient
Divergence
Curl
Laplacian
Spherical coordinates
The spherical coordinate system
Distance and azimuth
Choice of axes
Vector operators in spherical coordinates
Scientific programming
Example: synthetic seismogram calculation
Programming style
Representation of numbers
A few pitfalls
Some philosophical points
Further reading
Problems
References
Solutions to selected odd-numbered problems
Index

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