Human Safety and Risk Management

ISBN-10: 0849330904
ISBN-13: 9780849330902
Edition: 2nd 2006 (Revised)
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Description: Reflecting a decade's worth of changes, this second edition addresses safety culture and models of risk as well as an extensive re-working of the material from the earlier edition. Examining a wide range of approaches to risk, the authors define  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 4/24/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 528
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.794
Language: English

Reflecting a decade's worth of changes, this second edition addresses safety culture and models of risk as well as an extensive re-working of the material from the earlier edition. Examining a wide range of approaches to risk, the authors define safety culture and review theoretical models that elucidate mechanisms linking safety culture with safety performance. Filled with practical examples and case studies and drawing on a range of disciplines, the book delineates a risk management approach that includes a range of techniques such as risk assessment, safety audit, and safety interventions. The authors discuss managing behavior in work environments including key functions and benefits of groups.

Introduction
Establishing the field
Emerging issues in OHS research and practice
Contexts
Fields and topics
Legal and regulatory
Technical
Health
Psychological
Managerial
Ten generic challenges for OHS research and practice
Integrating knowledge
Knowledge application
Program evaluation
System complexity
Multiple synergies
Resources
Displacing risk
Ethics and social justice
Triangulating methodologies
Conceptual and theoretical advances
Risk models and risk management
Introduction
First-order concepts/approaches to risk
Technical
Description of the technical approach
Risk management and the technical approach
Illustrative interventions
Where next for the technical approach to risk?
Economic
Description of the economic approach
Risk management and the economic approach
Illustrative interventions
Further comments on the economic approach
Cultural theory
Description of the approach from cultural theory
Risk management and cultural theory
Illustrative interventions
Further comments on cultural theory
Psychometric
Describing the psychometric paradigm
Risk management and the psychometric approach
Illustrative interventions
Further comments on the psychometric approach
Expanded/developed approaches to risk
Social constructionism
Describing the social constructionist approach
Risk management and the social constructionist approach
Illustrative interventions
Social amplification of risk framework
Describing the social amplification of risk framework (SARF)
Risk management and the social amplification framework
Illustrative interventions
Criticisms of SARF
Individual differences
Individual differences and risk-taking behaviors
Risk management and individual differences
Illustrative interventions
Basic risk perception model
Describing the basic risk perception model (BRPM)
Criticisms of the BRPM
Risk management and the BRPM
Illustrative interventions
Meta-approaches to risk
Political
What constitutes a political approach to risk?
Risk management and the political approach
Illustrative interventions
Further political risk model development
Socio-emotional
Describing the socio-emotional approach to risk
Risk management and the socio-emotional approach
Illustrative implications
Adaptation
Adapting to risk
Adaptation and risk management
Illustrative interventions
Evolutionary
Describing the evolutionary approach
Risk management and the evolutionary approach
Illustrative applications
Links with other models
Further discussion
From sensation and perception through motivation and behavior
Introduction
Sensation and the human senses
Vision
Hearing and vibration
Perceptual organization and interpretation
Organization
Interpretation
Attention and vigilance
Sustained attention and vigilance
Selective attention
Effectiveness of warnings
Causal attribution
Attributional effects
Self-serving bias
Severity bias
False consensus
Situation bias
Correlational bias
Negative weighting
Availability
Adjustment
Representativeness
Small numbers
Anchoring
Overconfidence
Hindsight
Behavioral approach to motivation
Behavior modification
Principles of learning: implications for safety
Goal setting and performance feedback
Motivating for safety
Conclusions
Human error and human factors
Introduction
Human error
Errors as a learning tool
Categorizing human error
Slips and lapses
Mistakes
Rule-based mistakes
Knowledge-based mistakes
Violations
Error occurrence and detection
Error reduction strategies
Human factors
Ergonomic principles
Human and machine performance
Interface design
Fitting tasks to human operators
Ergonomic applications to reduce human error potential
Techniques for reducing human error/increasing human reliability
Task analysis
Task analysis for error identification (TAFEI)
Predictive human error analysis (PHEA)
Reason's generic approach
Quantified human reliability assessment (HRA)
Influence diagrams and model of accident causation using hierarchical influence network
Human factors investigation tool (HFIT) for accident analysis
Overview
Conclusions
Personality and risk liability
Introduction
Models of personality and the "big five"
Accident proneness
"Big-five" personality characteristics and injury liability
Extraversion
Sensation seeking
Other facets of extraversion
Reversal theory
Neuroticism
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Openness
Risk propensity
Individual differences in error liability
Personality at work
Using personality tests in selection
Conclusions
Attitudes, values, and risk behaviors
Introduction
Understanding attitudes
The nature of attitudes
Definition
Attitude components
Affective
Cognitive
Behavioral intention
Attitude dimensions
Attitude measurement
Likert
Semantic differential
Visual analogue
Attitudes toward safety and risk
Attitudes and behavior: some theoretical perspectives
Attitudes influence behavior
Behavior influences attitudes
Attitudes and behavior are mutually reinforcing
Attitudes and behavior are likely to be mutually consistent, but independent
More complex approaches to attitude-behavior links
The theory of planned behavior (TPB)
The health belief model (HBM)
Protection motivation theory
Overview of complex models describing attitude-behavior links
Attitude change
Attitude functions
Attitude levels
Compliance
Identification
Internalization
The importance of attitude strength
Attitude change interventions
Audience
Persuader
Personality factors
Presentation of issues
Persistence of change
Other factors in attitude-behavior change
Information provision
Fear
Sanctions
Safety climate and safety attitudes
The concept of safety climate
Safety climate and perception
Safety climate and safe behavior
Conclusions
The role of stress in safety and risk
Introduction
Theoretical models of stress
Workplace stressors and injuries
Intrinsic job characteristics
Workload and work pace
Work schedules and shiftwork
Organizational roles
Work relationships
Job insecurity
Individual differences and job stress
Personality
Type A behavior pattern (TABP)
Negative affectivity
Locus of control
Self-esteem
Mechanisms linking stress with injuries
Direct effects of job stress on injuries
Effects of acute stressors
Effects of chronic stressors
Indirect effects of job stress on injuries
Work-related attitudes
General health
The role of moderating factors
Social support
Coping strategies
Stress interventions
Individual-level stress interventions
Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
Stress management programs
Health promotion programs
Organizational level stress interventions
Work redesign
Participation and autonomy
Social support groups
Effectiveness of stress interventions
Conclusions
Managing teams for safe performance
Introduction
Functions and benefits of groups
Formation and types of groups
Types of teams
Team effectiveness
Team design
Group norms and expectations
Cohesiveness
Group safety climate
Communication
Group discussion and decision making
Team leadership and self-managing teams
Virtual teams
Safety committee effectiveness
Barriers to team effectiveness
Social comparison and social control
Intergroup relations
Decision-making biases
Managing effective work teams
Managing teams as individuals
Balancing authority and democracy
Teams and organizational structures
Teams and organizational support
Teams and training
Conclusions
Leading and supervising for safe performance
Introduction
Leadership theories
Trait theories
Leadership style
Contingency theories
Worker maturity
Least preferred coworker (LPC)
Normative model
Path-goal theory
Relational leadership
Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
Trust and leadership
New leadership theories
Charismatic leadership
Transformational leadership
Individualized consideration
Intellectual stimulation
Inspirational motivation
Idealized influence
Contingent reward
Management-by-exception and laissez-faire leadership
Safety climate and leadership
Substitutes for leadership
Empowerment
Leadership failures
Leadership ethics
Conclusions
Managing human risks
Introduction
A risk management approach
Risk assessment
Safety management systems
Measuring performance
Safety auditing
Human resource management (HRM)
HR practices associated with occupational health and safety
Employment security
Selective hiring
Communication and information sharing
Reward systems for safety
Safety training
The learning process
Types of safety training
Transfer of training
Refresher training
Managing safety risks: an integrated approach
Types of safety intervention
Individual and group level safety interventions
Organizational level safety interventions
Autonomy and safety outcomes
Self-managing work teams
Worker participation
Communication
Management development
Conclusions
Safety culture
Introduction
Defining safety culture
Safety culture as attitudes
Safety culture as behavior
Theoretical models of safety culture
Organizational culture approach
Total safety culture
Safety culture: an informed culture
Reciprocal safety culture model
An approach from subcultures
Work climate model
A social capital theory of safety culture
The role of safety climate
The role of occupational stress
High-reliability organizations and safety culture
Approaches to developing and measuring safety culture
Interpretive approaches
Functionalist approaches
Measuring safety culture
Safety systems
Safety attitudes and perceptions
Safety behavior
Triangulation
Safety culture and injuries
Changing toward a positive safety culture
Indicators
Drivers of change
Direct cultural change
Indirect cultural change
Climate change
Safety culture and risk management
Antecedents of safety culture
Safety culture as a form of risk control
A risk management approach to safety
Management commitment to safety
Worker involvement
Barriers
Conclusions
Risk management - conclusions
Staged approaches to managing safety risks
Beyond a standards approach
Integrating individual and organizational adaptive features
Beyond prevention
References
Index

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