Foundations of Clinical Research Applications to Practice

ISBN-10: 0838526950
ISBN-13: 9780838526958
Edition: 2nd 2000
List price: $95.40
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Description: For undergraduate/graduate-level courses in physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nursing, exercise physiology, medicine and public health. This text serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. It is  More...

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Book details

List price: $95.40
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 12/17/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 742
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.23" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

For undergraduate/graduate-level courses in physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nursing, exercise physiology, medicine and public health. This text serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. It is written for students and practitioners in the health professions as they become critical consumers of published research, and for those who are actively engaged in clinical research activities. This edition reflects the popular approaches to analysis and design, and addresses the focus of health-care related research through the 1990s and into the 21st century.

Foundations of Clinical Research
A Concept of Research
A Definition of Clinical Research
Contemporary Perspectives
Sources of Knowledge
Types of Research
The Research Process
Understanding Method, Content, and Philosophy
Commentary: Research and Clinical Problem Solving
The Role of Theory in Clinical Research
Purposes of Theories
Components of Theories
Types of Theories
Characteristics of Theories
Theory and Research
Theory and Law
Commentary: Applying Theory
Ethical Issues in Clinical Research
Integrity of the Researcher
Protection of Human Rights in Clinical Research
Institutional Review Board
Elements of Informed Consent
Commentary: A Patient Care Perspective
Concepts of Measurement
Principles of Measurement
Quantification and Measurement
The Indirect Nature of Measurement
Rules of Measurement
Commentary: When Is an Ordinal Measure Not an Ordinal Measure?
Reliability
Measurement Error
Reliability Coefficients
Types of Reliability
Generalizability
Pilot Testing
Commentary: What Is the True Score?
Validity of Measurements
Validity and Reliability
Validity of Inferences
Face Validity
Content Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
Construct Validity
Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures
Measuring Change
Criterion Referencing and Norm Referencing
Cross-Validation
Commentary: The Ongoing Pursuit of Validity
Design
The Research Question
Selecting a Topic
The Research Problem
Importance and Feasibility of the Research Question
Target Population
The Research Rationale
Variables
Research Objectives
Reviewing the Literature
Pilot Testing
Commentary: Putting the Horse before the Cart
Sampling
Populations and Samples
Sampling Techniques
Probability Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
Recruitment
Commentary: Sampling, Like Life, is a Compromise
Experimental Control
Characteristics of Experiments
The Research Protocol
Blinding
Design Strategies for Controlling Intersubject Differences
Threats to Validity
Commentary: The Realities of Clinical Research
Experimental Design
Selecting a Design
Design Notation
True Experimental Designs
Repeated Measures Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Commentary: The Design Should Fit the Question
Sequential Clinical Trials
The Design of a Sequential Trial
Measuring Preferences
Sequential Plans for Evaluating Preferences
Limitations of Sequential Designs
Commentary: Try It, You'll Like It
Single-Subject Designs
Structure of Single-Subject Designs
Target Behavior
Reliability
Experimental Control: Limitations of the A-B Design
Withdrawal Designs
Multiple-Treatment Designs
Multiple-Baseline Designs
Changing Criterion Design
Data Analysis in Single-Subject Research
Generalization of Findings
Commentary: It's a Start
Descriptive and Exploratory Research
Retrospective and Prospective Research
Descriptive Research
Exploratory Research
Commentary: First Things First
Surveys
Interviews and Questionnaires
Design of Surveys
Constructing Survey Questions
Scales
Q-Sort
Delphi Survey
Analysis of Survey Data
Informed Consent
Commentary: They Have a Thousand and One Uses
Epidemiology
Descriptive Epidemiology
Analytic Designs: Observational Studies
Analytic Designs: Clinical Trials
Measures of Association
Evaluating Causality in Observational Studies
Commentary: A New View of Outcomes
Other Research Approaches
Evaluation Research
Methodological Research
Secondary Analysis
Meta-Analysis
Historical Research
Commentary: Moving Forward
Analysis
Descriptive Statistics and Measures of Variability
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
The Normal Distribution
Commentary: Description Only Goes So Far
Statistical Inference
Probability
Sampling Error
Confidence Intervals
Hypothesis Testing
Errors in Hypothesis Testing
Type I Error: Level of Significance
Type II Error: Statistical Power
Concepts of Statistical Testing
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics
Commentary: Statistical versus Clinical Significance
The t-Test
The Conceptual Basis for Comparing Group Means
The t-Test for Independent Samples
The t-Test for Paired Samples
Inappropriate Use of Multiple t-Tests
Use of Confidence Intervals to Test Differences between Means
Commentary: The Significance of Significance
Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples: One-Way Classification
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Classification
Analysis of Variance: Three-Way Classification
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance
Commentary: Beyond Analysis of Variance
Multiple Comparison Tests
Type I Error Rate: Per Comparison versus Family
Statistical Ratios for Multiple Comparison Tests
Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference
Newman-Keuls Method
Scheffe's Comparison
Bonferroni t-Test
Simple and Complex Contrasts
Presentation of Results of Multiple Comparisons
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Factorial Designs
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Repeated Measures
Trend Analysis
Commentary: Choices, Choices, Choices
Nonparametric Tests for Group Comparisons
Criteria for Choosing Nonparametric Tests
Procedure for Ranking Scores
Test for Two Independent Samples: Mann-Whitney U-Test
Test for More than Two Independent Samples: Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
Tests for Two Correlated Samples: Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test
Test for More than Two Correlated Samples: Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
Commentary: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions
Correlation
Scatter Plots
Correlation Coefficients
Linear versus Curvilinear Relationships
Criteria for Evaluating Correlation Coefficients
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
Correlation of Ranks: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient
Correlation of Dichotomies
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients
Commentary: The Stork Was Busy
Regression
Linear Regression
Assumptions for Regression Analysis
Outliers
Accuracy of Prediction
Analysis of Variance of Regression
Restrictions on the Interpretation of Linear Regression Analysis
Nonlinear Regression
Analysis of Covariance
Commentary: It's Not That Simple
Analysis of Frequencies: Chi-square
The Chi-square Statistic
Goodness of Fit
Interpreting Significant Effects: Standardized Residuals
Tests of Independence
McNemar Test for Correlated Samples
Coefficients of Association
Commentary: Uses of Chi-square
Statistical Measures of Reliability
Reliability Theory and Measurement Error
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient
Agreement
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's Alpha
Response Stability
Alternate Forms: Limits of Agreement
Commentary: Know Your Reliability Coefficient
Multivariate Analysis
Partial Correlation
Multiple Regression
Logistic Regression
Discriminant Analysis
Factor Analysis
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Commentary: Can We Keep It Simple?
Data Management
Recording Data
Data Coding
Data Entry
Data Modification
Data Management
Commentary: "Anyone can analyze data, but to really mess things up takes a computer."
Communication
Writing a Research Proposal
Components of the Research Plan
Plan for Administrative Support
Presentation of the Proposal
Commentary: Review, Revise, Edit, Revise, Review
Reporting the Results of Clinical Research
The Journal Article
The Poster Presentation
The Oral Presentation
Commentary: Taking the Final Step
Evaluating Research Reports
Analyzing Content of an Article
Commentary: The Reader's View
Appendices
Statistical Tables
Summary of Statistical Procedures
Power and Sample Size
The Effect Size Index
Power Analysis for the t-Test
Power Analysis for the Analysis of Variance
Power Analysis for Correlation
Power Analysis for Regression
Power Analysis for Chi-square
Transformation of Data
Sample Informed Consent Form
Glossary of Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations
Index

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