Sport Psychology An Introduction

ISBN-10: 0830415483
ISBN-13: 9780830415489
Edition: 3rd 2002 (Revised)
List price: $100.95
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Description: The third edition of this unique sports psychology text covers a wide variety of topics, including steroid abuse in sport and fitness, women athletes as portrayed by the media, psychological testing, fitness, exercise adherence, homophobia in  More...

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Book details

List price: $100.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 11/7/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 612
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

The third edition of this unique sports psychology text covers a wide variety of topics, including steroid abuse in sport and fitness, women athletes as portrayed by the media, psychological testing, fitness, exercise adherence, homophobia in sports, and eating disorders among athletes. This objective and scientific text discusses the theory, research, and application of psychology as it relates to sport and fitness. In order to familiarize the reader with the more applied aspects of the field, other topics such as licensure, credentialing, and the image sport psychology has among athletes and coaches, are also included.

Grossman, a graduate in physics and mathematics from Moscow University, worked first as a chemical engineer and became a published writer during the mid-1930s. His early stories and novel deal with such politically orthodox themes as the struggle against the tsarist regime, the civil war, and the building of the new society. Grossman served as a war correspondent during World War II, publishing a series of sketches and stories about his experiences. Along with Ehrenburg, he edited the suppressed documentary volume on the fate of Soviet Jews, The Black Book. In 1952 the first part of his new novel, For the Good of the Cause, appeared and was sharply criticized for its depiction of the war. The censor rejected another novel, Forever Flowing (1955), which was circulated in samizdat and published in the West. The secret police confiscated a sequel to For the Good of the Cause, the novel Life and Fate, in 1961, but a copy was smuggled abroad and published in 1970. Grossman's books were issued in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s and have met with both admiration and, on part of the nationalist right wing, considerable hostility.

Introducing Sport Psychology and Sport History
An Introduction to Sport Psychology
Organization of this Book
What is Sport Psychology?
What Do Sport Psychologists Do?
Sport Psychology Professional Organizations
The International Organization
North American Organizations
Australian, British, and Canadian Organizations
Related Professional Organizations
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Professional Issues
Training for the Profession
Credentialing
Ethical Principles
Image of the Profession
Employment Opportunities
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Sport History From Antiquity Through the Enlightenment
The Ancient Near East and Asia
The Greeks
Homeric Greece
The Early Athenian Period
The Spartan Period
The Later Athenian Period
The Romans
The Middle Ages
The Byzantine Empire
Christianity
The Age of Chivalry
Renaissance and Enlightenment
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
History of Sport and Sport Psychology in the United States
Colonial America
From the Revolutionary War Through the Civil War
Technological Revolution, 1850-1900
Eight Milestones in Recent U.S. Sport History
A Brief History of Physical Education
A Brief History of Psychology
A Brief History of Sport Psychology
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Behavioral Principles and Applications
Behavioral Principles
Classical Conditioning
Operant Learning
Basic Principles
Behavioral Coaching Techniques
Public Recording
Changing Coaching Behaviors
Conditioned Reinforcement
Premack Principle
Response Cost
Training Variables
Learned Helplessness
Cognitive Learning
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Anxiety and Arousal
Determinants of Anxiety and Arousal
Neurophysiological Mechanisms
Psychological Mechanisms
Effects of Anxiety on Competitive Performance
Effects of Arousal on Competitive Performance: The Inverted-U Hypothesis
The Measurement of Anxiety and Arousal
Physiological Measures
Psychological Measures
Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychological and Physiological Measures
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Anxiety Reduction: Classical Conditioning and Operat Learning Applications
Classical Conditioning Techniques
Extinction
Counterconditioning
Operant Learning Techniques
Reinforced Practice
Biofeedback Training
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Anxiety Reduction: Cognitive Learning Techniques
Imagery
Visuomotor Behavioral Rehearsal
Stress Inoculation Training
Cognitive Control
Hypnosis
Yoga, Zen, and Transcendental Meditation
Psych-Up Strategies
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Social Psychological Dimensions
Motivation: Attribution Theory and Need Achievement
What is Motivation?
Attribution Theory
The Cognitive Model
Social Cognitive Models
The Functional Model
Future Directions in Attribution Research
Need for Achievement
Murray's Contribution
The McClelland--Atkinson Model
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Motivation: Locus of Control and Self Theory
Locus of Control
Rotter's I-E Scale
Levenson's Multidimensional Approach
Locus-of-Control Measurement With Youth
Current Status of the Locus-of-Construct
Self Theory
The Self
The Self-Concept
Self-Actualization
Status of Research on Self Theory
Some Final Thoughts on Motivation
Sport Self-Confidence
Sport Motivation
Setting Performance Goals in Sport
Explanatory Style
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Social Psychology of Sport: Leadership and Group Cohesion
Leadership
Theories of Leadership
Chelladurai's Multidimensional Model of Sport Leadership
Player Leadership
Evaluation of Leadership Research
Group Cohesion
Models of Team Cohesion
Factors Affecting Team Cohesion
Measures of Team Cohesion
Two Final Notes
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Social Psychology of Sport: Audience Effects
Social Facilitation
Other Drive Theories
An Evaluation of Drive Theory
Alternative Nondrive Models
Interactive Audience Effects on Sport Performance
The Home Advantage
Basking in reflected Glory
Choking Under Pressure
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Aggression: Dimensions and Theories
Aggression Defined
Dimensions of Aggression
Provoked and Unprovoked Aggression
Direct and Indirect Aggression
Physical and Verbal Aggression
Adaptive and Maladaptive Aggression
Hostile Aggression, Instrumental Aggression, and Sport Assertiveness
Aggression and Violence: One and the Same?
Biological Theories of Aggression
Psychosocial Theories of Aggression
Cathartic Approaches
Social Learning Approach
Catharsis or Social Learning?
Sociological Explanations of Aggression in Sport
Contagion Theory
Convergence Theory
Emergent Norm Theory
Value-Added Theory
The Measurement of Aggression
Factors Promoting Aggression
Physical Factors
Psychological Factors
Sociological Considerations
Critical Sport-Related Variables Affecting Aggression
Point Spread
Home/Away Factor
Outcome
League Standing
Period of Play
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Aggression: Violence in Selected Sport Populations
Boxing
Football
Hockey
Smith's Violence Typology
Violence Among Female Athletes
Violence Against Females by Male Athletes
Violence Against Sports Officials
Recommendations for Curbing Violence in Sport
Management
The Media
Game Officials
Coaches
Players
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Personality, Assessment, and Special Athletic Populations
Personality and Psychological Assessment
Personality Defined
Theories of Personality
Biological Models
The Psychodynamic Model
The Humanistic Model
The Behavioral Model
Trait Theory
The Interactional Model
Problems in Sport Personality Research
Conceptual Problems
Methodological Problems
Interpretive Problems
Psychological Assessment
What is a Test?
Validity, Reliability, and Norms
Validity
Reliability
Norms
Sources of Error in Testing
Faking Good
Faking Bad
Test Ethics and Sport Psychology
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Psychological Assessment in Sport Psychology
Tests of Enduring Personality Traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)/Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
State Measures Used in Sport Psychology
Profile of Mood States (POMS)
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Sport-Specific Tests
Athletic Motivation Inventory
Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT)
Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI)
Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2)
Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS)
Other Sport-Specific Measures
A Final Note
Attitude Measurement in Sport
Likert Scales
Semantic Differential Scales
Thurstone Scaling
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Special Populations: Minority and High-Risk-Sport Athletes
The Minority Athlete
The African-American Athlete
The Success of African-American Athletes
The Hispanic Athlete
The Asian-American Athlete
The Native American Athlete
The High-Risk-Sport Participant
Sport Parachuting/Skydiving
Hang Gliding
Rock Climbing
Scuba Diving
Correlates of High-Risk-Sport Participation
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Special Populations: Elite, Disabled, Injured, or Drug-Abusing Athletes
The Elite Athlete
Kroll's Personality Performance Pyramid
Research on Exceptional Performance
The Athlete With Disabilities
The Injured Athlete
The Athlete Who Uses or Abuses Drugs
Prohibited Classes of Substances
Prohibited Methods of Administering Drugs
Classes of Drugs Subject to Restrictions
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
The Female Sport Experience: Historical Roots and Physiological Concerns
A Brief History
Ancient Greece
The Modern Olympics
Title IX Legislation
Contemporary Forces in Women's Athletics
The Physiological Dimension in Women's Athletics
Menstrual Functioning
Other Problems
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
The Female Sport Experience: Sport Socialization, Psychological Variables, and Other Issues
Socialization Into Sport
Role Conflict
The Family
Acceptability of Various Sports
Why Women Compete
Psychological Variables
Attribution Theory
Fear of Success
Psychological Androgyny
Other Issues Involving Women in Sport
The Media
Homophobia
Eating Disorders
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Youth Sport: Motives for Participating and Withdrawing
A Brief History
Little League Baseball
Concerns About Youth Fitness
Motives for Participating in Sport
Having Fun
Skill Improvement
Fitness Benefits
Team Atmosphere
Other Reasons
A Final Note
Motives for Withdrawing from Participation
Primary Concerns
Secondary Concerns
AFA Recommendations for Making Youth Sport More Enjoyable
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Youth Sport: Stress and Other Issues
Stress and Youth Sport
Competition: Product or Process?
Competitive Stress
Measures of Stress
Cognitive Aspects of Competitive Stress
Perceived Ability
Success Expectancy
Expectancy of Negative Evaluation
Expectancy of Negative Affect
Antecedents of Competitive Stress
Parent--Child Interactions
Interactions With Other Adults and Peers
History of Success and Failure
Elite Performance in Youth Athletes
Violence in Youth Sports
Health Risks Associated With Youth Sport
Recommendations for Improving Youth Sport
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Coaching and Exercise
The Coach: Roles, Communication, and Psychological Variables
Roles of the Coach
What Makes a Good Coach?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Coaching
Communication and Coaching
The Coach and the Sport Psychologist
The Coach's Personality
The Authoritarian Personality
The Machiavellian Personality
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Youth, Female, and Black Coaches; Coaching Burnout
Coaching and Youth Sport
The Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS)
Other Approaches to Improving Youth Coaching
The Female Coach
The Female Interscholastic/Intercollegiate Coach
Reasons for the Decline in the Number of Female Coaches
A Final Note
The African-American Coach
Coaching Burnout
Smith's Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout
Causes of Burnout
Effects of Burnout
Preventing Burnout
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Exercise Psychology: Physical Fitness, Adherence, and the Cognitive and Affective Benefits of Exercise
Physical Fitness
Physical Fitness Defined
Physical Benefits
Psychological Benefits
Exercise Adherence
Predictors of Exercise Adherence
Why People Drop Out of Exercise Programs
Improving Exercise Adherence
Cognitive and Affective Consequences of Exercise
Cognitive Effects
Effects on Mood
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
Exercise Psychology: Running Addictions and Exercise for Senior Citizens
The Runner's Addictions
Positive Addiction
Negative Addiction
Mood and Running
Runner's High
Marathon Runners
Ultramarathoners/Ultrarunners
Exercise and Competition for Senior Citizens
Fitness Issues for Seniors
The Competitive Senior
A Final Note
Summary
Key Terms
Suggested Readings
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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