Ancient Society

ISBN-10: 0816509247
ISBN-13: 9780816509249
Edition: 1985 (Reprint)
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Description: eprint of the 1877 edition (which is cited in Books for College Libraries, 3d ed.) with a new introduction by Robin Fox. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR

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Book details

List price: $26.95
Copyright year: 1985
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
Publication date: 5/1/1985
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 560
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

eprint of the 1877 edition (which is cited in Books for College Libraries, 3d ed.) with a new introduction by Robin Fox. Annotation copyrighted by Book News Inc., Portland, OR

Lewis Henry Morgan, an American lawyer, studied, lived with, and was eventually adopted by the Iroquois Indians in New York State; this experience made him a self-taught anthropologist who went on to make substantial contributions to the field. His evolutionary theory of the family has been largely abandoned, but his Ancient Society (1877) became a classic in Marxist literature. Its account of how culture had actually evolved was the best available during the mid-nineteenth century. Although Karl Marx (see also Vol. 4) died before he was able to write a planned book about Morgan, Friedrich Engels (see also Vol. 4) wrote The Origin of the Family: Private Property and the State in 1884 largely on the basis of Morgan's work. Morgan was also the first to publish a treatise on Australian kinship.

Introduction to the Transaction Edition
Preface
Growth of Intelligence Through Inventions and Discoveries
Ethnical Periods
Progress of Mankind from the Bottom of the Scale
Illustrated by Inventions, Discoveries and Institutions
Two Plans of Government
One Gentile and Social, giving a Society (Societas); the other Political, giving a State (Civitas)
The former founded upon Persons and Gentilism; the Latter upon Territory and Property
The First, the Plan of Government of Ancient Society
The Second, that of Modern or Civilized Society
Uniformity of Human Experience
Proposed Ethnical Periods
Lower Status of Savagery
Middle Status of Savagery
Upper Status of Savagery
Lower Status of Barbarism
Middle Status of Barbarism
Upper Status of Barbarism
Status of Civilization
Arts of Subsistence
Supremacy of Mankind over the Earth
Control over Subsistence the Condition
Mankind alone gained that Control
Successive Arts of Subsistence
Natural Subsistence
Fish Subsistence
Farinaceous Subsistence
Meat and Milk Subsistence
Unlimited Subsistence through Field Agriculture
Long Intervals of Time between them
Ratio of Human Progress
Retrospect on the Lines of Human Progress
Principal Contributions of Modern Civilization
Of Ancient Civilization
Of Later Period of Barbarism
Of Middle Period
Of Older Period
Of Period of Savagery
Humble Condition of Primitive Man
Human Progress in a Geometrical Ratio
Relative Length of Ethnical Periods
Appearance of Semitic and Aryan Families
Growth of the Idea of Government
Organization of Society Upon the Basis of Sex
Australian Classes
Organized upon Sex
Archaic Character of the Organization
Australian Gentes
The Eight Classes
Rule of Marriage
Descent in the Female Line
Stupendous Conjugal System
Two Male and Two Female Classes in each Gens
Innovations upon the Classes
Gens still Rudimentary
The Iroquois Gens
The Gentile Organization
Its Wide Prevalence
Definition of a Gens
Descent in the Female Line the Archaic Rule
Rights, Privileges and Obligations of Members of a Gens
Right of Electing and Deposing its Sachem and Chiefs
Obligation not to marry in the Gens
Mutual Rights of Inheritance of the Property of deceased Members
Reciprocal Obligations of Help, Defense and Redress of Injuries
Right of Naming its Members
Right of Adopting Strangers into the Gens
Common Religious Rites, Query
A Common Burial Place
Council of the Gens
Gentes named after Animals
Number of Persons in a Gens
The Iroquois Phratry
Definition of a Phratry
Kindred Gentes Reunited in a Higher Organization
Phratry of the Iroquois Tribes
Its Composition
Its Uses and Functions
Social and Religious
Illustrations
The Analogue of the Grecian Phratry; but in its Archaic Form
Phratries of the Choctas
Of the Chickasas
Of the Mohegans
Of the Thlinkeets
Their Probable Universality in the Tribes of the American Aborigines
The Iroquois Tribe
The Tribe as an Organization
Composed of Gentes Speaking the same Dialect
Separation in Area led to Divergence of Speech, and Segmentation
The Tribe a Natural Growth
Illustrations
Attributes of a Tribe
A Territory and Name
An Exclusive Dialect
The Right to Invest and Depose its Sachems and Chiefs
A Religious Faith and Worship
A Council of Chiefs
A Head-Chief of Tribe in some Instances
Three successive Forms of Gentile Government
A Government of One Power
Of Two Powers
Of Three Powers
The Iroquois Confederacy
Confederacies Natural Growths
Founded upon Common Gentes, and a Common Language
The Iroquois Tribes
Their Settlement in New York
Formation of the Confederacy
Its Structure and Principles
Fifty Sachemships Created
Made Hereditary in certain Gentes
Number assigned to each Tribe
These Sachems formed the Council of the Confederacy
The Civil Council
Its Mode of Transacting Business
Unanimity Necessary to its Action
The Mourning Council
Mode of Raising up Sachems
General Military Commanders
This Office the Germ of that of a Chief Executive Magistrate
Intellectual Capacity of the Iroquois
Gentes in Other Tribes of the Ganowanian Family
Divisions of American Aborigines
Gentes in Indian Tribes; with their Rules of Descent and Inheritance
Hodenosaunian Tribes
Dakotian
Gulf
Pawnee
Algonkin
Athapasco-Apache
Tribes of North-west Coast
Eskimos, a Distinct Family
Salish, Sahaptin, and Kootenay Tribes
Shoshonee
Village Indians of New Mexico, Mexico and Central America
South American Indian Tribes
Probable Universality of the Organization in Gentes in the Ganowanian Family
The Aztec Confederacy
Misconception of Aztec Society
Condition of Advancement
Nahuatlac Tribes
Their Settlement in Mexico
Pueblo of Mexico founded, A.D. 1325
Aztec Confederacy established, A.D. 1426
Extent of Territorial Domination
Probable Number of the People
Whether or not the Aztecs were organized in Gentes and Phratries
The Council of Chiefs
Its probable Functions
Office held by Montezuma
Elective in Tenure
Deposition of Montezuma
Probable Functions of the Office
Aztec Institutions essentially Democratical
The Government a Military Democracy
The Grecian Gens
Early Condition of Grecian Tribes
Organized into Gentes
Changes in the Character of the Gens
Necessity for a Political System
Problem to be Solved
The Formation of a State
Grote's Description of the Grecian Gentes
Of their Phratries and Tribes
Rights, Privileges and Obligations of the Members of the Gens
Similar to those of the Iroquois Gens
The Office of Chief of the Gens
Whether Elective or Hereditary
The Gens the Basis of the Social System
Antiquity of the Gentile Lineage
Inheritance of Property
Archaic and Final Rule
Relationships between the Members of a Gens
The Gens the Center of Social and Religious Influence
The Grecian Phratry, Tribe and Nation
The Athenian Phratry
How Formed
Definition of Dikaearchus
Objects chiefly Religious
The Phratriarch
The Tribe
Composed of Three Phratries
The Phylo Basileus
The Nation
Composed of Four Tribes
Boule, or Council of Chiefs
Agora, or Assembly of the People
The Basileus
Tenure of the Office
Military and Priestly Functions
Civil Functions not shown
Governments of the Heroic Age, Military Democracies
Aristotle's Definition of a Basileus
Later Athenian Democracy
Inherited from the Gentes
Its Powerful Influence upon Athenian Development
The Institution of Grecian Political Society
Failure of the Gentes as a Basis of Government
Legislation of Theseus
Attempted Substitution of Classes
Its Failure
Abolition of the Office of Basileus
The Archonship
Naucraries and Trittyes
Legislation of Solon
The Property Classes
Partial Transfer of Civil Power from the Gentes to the Classes
Persons unattached to any Gens
Made Citizens
The Senate
The Ecclesia
Political Society partially attained
Legislation of Cleisthenes
Institution of Political Society
The Attic Deme or Township
Its Organization and Powers
Its Local Self-government
The Local Tribe or District
The Attic Commonwealth
Athenian Democracy
The Roman Gens
Italian Tribes Organized in Gentes
Founding of Rome
Tribes Organized into a Military Democracy
The Roman Gens
Definition of a Gentilis by Cicero
By Festus
By Varro
Descent in Male Line
Marrying out of the Gens
Rights, Privileges and Obligations of the Members of a Gens
Democratic Constitution of Ancient Latin Society
Number of Persons in a Gens
The Roman Curia, Tribe and Populus
Roman Gentile Society
Four Stages of Organization
The Gens
The Curia, consisting of TenGentes
The Tribe, composed of Ten Curiae
The Populus Romanus, composed of Three Tribes
Numerical Proportions
How Produced
Concentration of Gentes at Rome
The Roman Senate
Its Functions
The Assembly of the People
Its Powers
The People Sovereign
Office of Military Commander (Rex)
Its Powers and Functions
Roman Gentile Institutions essentially Democratical
The Institution of Roman Political Society
The Populus
The Plebeians
The Clients
The Patricians
Limits of the Order
Legislation of Servius Tullius
Institution of Property Classes
Of the Centuries
Unequal Suffrage
Comitia Centuriata
Supersedes Comitia Curiata
Classes supersede the Gentes
The Census
Plebeians made Citizens
Institution of City Wards
Of Country Townships
Tribes increased to Four
Made Local instead of Consanguine
Character of New Political System
Decline and Disappearance of Gentile Organization
The Work it Accomplished
Change of Descent from the Female to the Male Line
How the Change might have been made
Inheritance of Property the Motive
Descent in the Female Line among the Lycians
The Cretans
The Etruscans
Probably among the Athenians in the time of Cecrops
The Hundred Families of the Locrians
Evidence from Marriages
Turanian System of Consanguinity among Grecian Tribes
Legend of the Danaidae
Gentes in other Tribes of the Human Family
The Scottish Clan
The Irish Sept
Germanic Tribes
Traces of a prior Gentile System
Gentes in Southern Asiatic Tribes
In Northern
In Uralian Tribes
Hundred Families of Chinese
Hebrew Tribes
Composed of Gentes and Phratries Apparently
Gentes in African Tribes
In Australian Tribes
Subdivisions of Fejees and Rewas
Wide Distribution of Gentile Organization
Growth of the Idea of the Family
The Ancient Family
Five successive Forms of the Family
First, the Consanguine Family
It created the Malayan System of Consanguinity and Affinity
Second, the Punaluan
It created the Turanian and Ganowanian System
Third, the Monogramian
It created the Aryan, Semitic, and Uralian System
The Syndyasmian and Patriarchal Families Intermediate
Both failed to create a System of Consanguinity
These Systems Natural Growths
Two Ultimate Forms
One Classificatory, the other Descriptive
General Principles of these Systems
Their Persistent Maintenance
The Consanguine Family
Former Existence of this Family
Proved by Malayan System of Consanguinity
Hawaiian System used as Typical
Five Grades of Relations
Details of System
Explained in its origin by the Intermarriage of Brothers and Sisters in a Group
Early State of Society in the Sandwich Islands
Nine Grades of Relations of the Chinese
Identical in Principle with the Hawaiian
Five Grades of Relations in Ideal Republic of Plato
Table of Malayan System of Consanguinity and Affinity
The Punaluan Family
The Punaluan Family supervened upon the Consanguine
Transition, how Produced
Hawaiian Custom of Punalua
Its probable ancient Prevalence over wide Areas
The Gentes originated probably in Punaluan Groups
The Turanian System of Consanguinity
Created by the Punaluan Family
It proves the Existence of this Family when the System was formed
Details of System
Explanation of its Relationships in their Origin
Table of Turanian and Ganowanian Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity
The Syndyasmian and the Patriarchal Families
The Syndyasmian Family
How Constituted
Its Characteristics
Influence upon it of the Gentile Organization
Propensity to Pair a late Development
Ancient Society should be Studied where the highest Exemplifications are found
The Patriarchal Family
Paternal Power its Essential Characteristic
Polygamy subordinate
The Roman Family similar
Paternal Power unknown in previous Families
The Monogamian Family
This Family comparatively Modern
The Term Familia
Family of Ancient Germans
Of Homeric Greeks
Of Civilized Greeks
Seclusion of Wives
Obligations of Monogamy not respected by the Males
The Roman Family
Wives under Power
Aryan System of Consanguinity
It came in under Monogamy
Previous System probably Turanian
Transition from Turanian into Aryan
Roman and Arabic Systems of Consanguinity
Details of the Former
Present Monogamian Family
Table of Roman and Arabic Systems
Sequence of Institutions Connected with the Family
Sequence in part Hypothetical
Relation of these Institutions in the Order of their Origination
Evidence of their Origination in the Order named
Hypothesis of Degradation Considered
The Antiquity of Mankind
Growth of the Idea of Property
The Three Rules of Inheritance
Property in the Status of Savagery
Slow Rate of Progress
First Rule of Inheritance
Property Distributed among the Gentiles
Property in the Lower Status of Barbarism
Germ of Second Rule of Inheritance
Distributed among Agnatic Kindred
Improved Character of Man
Property in Middle Status
Rule of Inheritance imperfectly Known
Agnatic Inheritance Probable
The Three Rules of Inheritance--Continued
Property in the Upper Status of Barbarism
Slavery
Tenure of Lands in Grecian Tribes
Culture of the Period
Its Brilliancy
Third Rule of Inheritance
Exclusively in Children
Hebrew Tribes
Rule of Inheritance
Daughters of Zelophehad
Property remained in the Phratry, and probably in the Gens
The Reversion
Athenian Inheritance
Exclusively in Children
The Reversion
Inheritance remained in the Gens
Heiresses
Wills
Roman Inheritance
The Reversion
Property remained in the Gens
Appearance of Aristocracy
Property Career of the Human Race
Unity of Origin of Mankind

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