Cognitive Linguistics An Introduction

ISBN-10: 0805860142
ISBN-13: 9780805860146
Edition: 2006
List price: $58.95
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Description: A general introduction to the area of theoretical linguistics known as cognitive linguistics, this textbook provides up-to-date coverage of all areas of the field, including recent developments within cognitive semantics (such as Primary Metaphor  More...

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Book details

List price: $58.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Routledge
Publication date: 3/3/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 856
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 2.25" tall
Weight: 3.542
Language: English

A general introduction to the area of theoretical linguistics known as cognitive linguistics, this textbook provides up-to-date coverage of all areas of the field, including recent developments within cognitive semantics (such as Primary Metaphor Theory, Conceptual Blending Theory, and Principled Polysemy), and cognitive approaches to grammar (such as Radical Construction Grammar and Embodied Construction Grammar). The authors offer clear, critical evaluations of competing formal approaches within theoretical linguistics. For example, cognitive linguistics is compared to Generative Grammar and Relevance Theory. In the selection of material and in the presentations, the authors have aimed for a balanced perspective. Part II, Cognitive Semantics, and Part III, Cognitive Approaches to Grammar, have been created to be read independently. The authors have kept in mind that different instructors and readers will need to use the book in different ways tailored to their own goals.nbsp; The coverage is suitablefor a number of courses. While all topics are presented in terms accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students of linguistics, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive science, and modern languages, this work is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to serve as a reference work for scholars who wish to gain a better understanding of cognitive linguistics.

Vyv Evans is Professor of Linguistics in the School of Linguistics and English Language at Bangor University.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations, symbols and transcription
Overview of the Cognitive Linguistics Enterprise
Introduction
What does it mean to know a language?
What is language for?
The symbolic function of language
The interactive function of language
The systematic structure of language
Evidence for a system
The systematic structure of thought
What do linguists do?
What?
Why?
How?
Speaker intuitions
Converging evidence
What it means to know a language
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
The nature of cognitive linguistics: assumptions and commitments
Two key commitments
The 'Generalisation Commitment'
The 'Cognitive Commitment'
The embodied mind
Embodied experience
Embodied cognition
Experiential realism
Cognitive semantics and cognitive approaches to grammar
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Universals and variation in language, thought and experience
Universals in thought and language
Typological universals
Universals in formal linguistics
Universals in cognitive linguistics
Cross-linguistic patterns in semantic systems
Patterns in the conceptualisation of space
Patterns in the conceptualisation of time
Cross-linguistic variation in semantic systems
Variation in the conceptualisation of space
Variation in the conceptualisation of time
Linguistic relativity and cognitive linguistics
Whorf and the Linguistic Relativity Principle
Language as a shaper of thought
The cognitive linguistics position
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Language in use: knowledge of language, language change and language acquisition
Language in use
A usage event
The relationship between usage and linguistic structure
Comprehension and production
Context
Frequency
Cognitive Grammar
Abstraction, schematisation and language use
Schemas and their instantiations
Partial sanction
The non-reductive nature of schemas
Frequency in schema formation
A usage-based approach to language change
Historical linguistics and language change
The Utterance Selection Theory of language change
The Generalised Theory of Selection and the Theory of Utterance Selection
Causal mechanisms for language change
The usage-based approach to language acquisition
Empirical findings in language acquisition
The cognitive view: socio-cognitive mechanisms in language acquisition
Comparing the generative view of language acquisition
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive Semantics
Introduction
What is cognitive semantics?
Guiding principles
Conceptual structure is embodied
Semantic structure is conceptual structure
Meaning representation is encyclopaedic
Meaning construction is conceptualisation
Phenomena investigated within cognitive semantics
The bodily basis of meaning
Conceptual structure
Encyclopaedic semantics
Mappings
Categorisation
Word meaning and polysemy
Methodology
Some comparisons with formal approaches to semantics
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Embodiment and conceptual structure
Image schemas
What is an image schema?
Properties of image schemas
Image schemas and linguistic meaning
A provisional list of image schemas
Image schemas and abstract thought
Conceptual structure
Semantic structure
Schematic systems
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
The encyclopaedic view of meaning
Dictionaries versus encylopaedias
The dictionary view
Problems with the dictionary view
Word meaning versus sentence meaning
The encyclopaedic view
Frame semantics
What is a semantic frame?
Frames in cognitive psychology
The Commercial Event frame
Speech event frames
Consequences of adopting a frame-based model
The theory of domains
What is a domain?
Basic, image-schematic and abstract domains
Other characteristics of domains
Profile/base organisation
Active zones
The perceptual basis of knowledge representation
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Categorisation and idealised cognitive models
Categorisation and cognitive semantics
The classical theory
The definitional problem
The problem of conceptual fuzziness
The problem of prototypicality
Further problems
Prototype theory
Principles of categorisation
The categorisation system
The vertical dimension
The horizontal dimension
Problems with prototype theory
The theory of idealised cognitive models
Sources of typicality effects
Radial categories as a further source of typicality effects
Addressing the problems with prototype theory
The structure of ICMs
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Metaphor and metonymy
Literal versus figurative language
Literal and figurative language as complex concepts
Can the distinction be maintained?
What is metaphor?
Conceptual Metaphor Theory
The unidirectionality of metaphor
Motivation for target and source
Metaphorical entailments
Metaphor systems
Metaphors and image schemas
Invariance
The conceptual nature of metaphor
Hiding and highlighting
Primary Metaphor Theory
Primary and compound metaphors
Experiential correlation
Motivating primary metaphors
Distinguishing primary and compound metaphors
What is metonymy?
Conceptual metonymy
Metonymy as an access mechanism
Metonymy-producing relationships
Vehicles for metonymy
Metaphor-metonymy interaction
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Word meaning and radial categories
Polysemy as a conceptual phenomenon
Words as radial categories
The full-specification approach
Image schema transformations
Metaphorical extensions
Problems with the full-specification approach
The Principled Polysemy approach
Distinguishing between senses
Establishing the prototypical sense
Illustration of a radial category based on Principled Polysemy
Beyond prepositions
The importance of context for polysemy
Usage context: subsenses
Sentential context: facets
Knowledge context: ways of seeing
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Meaning construction and mental spaces
Sentence meaning in formal semantics
Meaning construction in cognitive semantics
Towards a cognitive theory of meaning construction
The architecture of mental space construction
Space builders
Elements
Properties and relations
Mental space lattices
Counterparts and connectors
The Access Principle
Roles and values
An illustration of mental space construction
The dynamic nature of meaning construction
Tense and aspect in English
The tense-aspect system in Mental Spaces Theory
Epistemic distance
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Conceptual blending
The origins of Blending Theory
Towards a theory of conceptual integration
The nature of blending
The elements of conceptual blending
Further linguistic examples
Non-linguistic examples
Vital relations and compressions
Vital relations
A taxonomy of vital relations and their compressions
Disintegration and decompression
A taxonomy of integration networks
Simplex networks
Mirror networks
Single-scope networks
Double-scope networks
Multiple blending
Constraining Blending Theory
Comparing Blending Theory with Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Contrasts
When is a metaphor not a blend?
What Blending Theory adds to Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive semantics in context
Truth-conditional semantics
Meaning, truth and reality
Object language versus metalanguage
The inconsistency of natural language
Sentences and propositions
Truth-conditional semantics and the generative enterprise
Compositionality of meaning
Translating natural language into a metalanguage
Semantic interpretation and matching
Comparison with cognitive semantics
Relevance Theory
Ostensive communication
Mutual cognitive environment
Relevance
Explicature and implicature
Metaphor
Comparison with cognitive semantics
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive Approaches to Grammar
Introduction
What is a cognitive approach to grammar?
Guiding assumptions
The symbolic thesis
The usage-based thesis
The architecture of the model
Distinct cognitive approaches to grammar
The 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'
Cognitive Grammar
Constructional approaches to grammar
Cognitive approaches to grammaticalisation
Grammatical terminology
Grammar
Units of grammar
Word classes
Syntax
Grammatical functions
Agreement and case
Characteristics of the cognitive approach to grammar
Grammatical knowledge: a structured inventory of symbolic units
Features of the closed-class subsystem
Schemas and instances
Sanctioning and grammaticality
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
The conceptual basis of grammar
The grammatical subsystem: encoding semantic structure
Talmy's 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'
The configuration of Space and Time
Conceptual alternativity
Schematic systems
The 'Configurational Structure System'
The 'Attentional System'
The 'Perspectival System'
The 'Force-Dynamics System'
Langacker's theory of Cognitive Grammar
The conceptual basis of word classes
Attention
Force-dynamics
Categorisation and polysemy in grammar: the network conception
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive Grammar: word classes
Word classes: linguistic categorisation
Nominal predications: nouns
Bounding
Homogeneity versus heterogeneity
Expansibility and contractibility versus replicability
Abstractions
Nominal versus relational predications
Temporal versus atemporal relations
Temporal relations: verbs
Atemporal relations
Class schemas
Nominal grounding predications
Determiners and quantifiers
Grounding
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive Grammar: constructions
Phrase structure
Valence
Correspondence
Profile determinacy
Conceptual autonomy versus conceptual dependence
Constituency
The prototypical grammatical construction
Word structure
Phonological autonomy and dependence
Semantic autonomy and dependence
Prototypical stems and affixes
Composite structure
Constructional schemas
Grammatical morphemes and agreement
Clauses
Valence at the clause level
Grammatical functions and transitivity
Case
Marked coding: the passive construction
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive Grammar: tense, aspect, mood and voice
English verbs: form and function
The clausal head
The passive construction: [be[subscript 2] [PERF[subscript 3] [V]]]
The progressive construction: [be[subscript 1] [-ing [V]]]
The perfect construction: [have [PERF[subscript 4] [V]]]
The grounding predication: mood and tense
Mood
Tense
The epistemic model
Situation aspect
Situation types
Perfective and imperfective PROCESSES
Aspect and the count/mass distinction
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Motivating a construction grammar
Constructions versus 'words and rules'
Exploring idiomatic expressions
Typology of idiomatic expressions
Case study I: the let alone construction
Case study II: the what's X doing Y construction
Construction Grammar
The Construction Grammar model
Construction Grammar: a 'broadly generative' model
Comparing Construction Grammar with Cognitive Grammar
The 'Generalisation Commitment'
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
The architecture of construction grammars
Goldberg's construction grammar
Assumptions
Advantages of a constructional approach to verb argument structure
The relationship between verbs and constructions
Relationships between constructions
Case studies
Radical Construction Grammar
Taxonomy of constructions
Emphasis on diversity
Five key features of RCG
Embodied Construction Grammar
Emphasis on language processing
Analysis and simulation
Comparing constructional approaches to grammar
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Grammaticalisation
The nature of grammaticalisation
Form change
Meaning change
Metaphorical extension approaches
Case study: Object-to-Space
Case study: Space-to-Possession
Invited Inferencing Theory
Case study: the evolution of must
The subjectification approach
Case study: be going to
Case study: the evolution of auxiliaries from verbs of motion or posture
Comparison of the three approaches: be going to
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Cognitive approaches to grammar in context
Theories of grammar: assumptions, objectives, methodology
Cognitive approaches to grammar
Generative approaches to grammar
Cognitive versus generative models
Functional-typological approaches to grammar
Core issues in grammar: comparing cognitive and generative accounts
Word classes
Constituency: heads and dependents
The status of tree diagrams
Grammatical functions and case
The verb string: tense, aspect and mood
The passive construction
Summary
Further reading
Exercises
Conclusion
Assessing the cognitive linguistics enterprise
Achievements
Remaining challenges
Summary
Tables and Figures
References
Index

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