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Ethics and Computing Living Responsibly in a Computerized World

ISBN-10: 0780360192
ISBN-13: 9780780360198
Edition: 2nd 2001 (Revised)
Authors: Kevin W. Bowyer
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Description: We are inundated daily with property issues and warnings against computer viruses and hackers. This guide promotes awareness of these issues, and accepted procedures and policies in the area of ethics and computing, using real companies, and  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/26/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 452
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

We are inundated daily with property issues and warnings against computer viruses and hackers. This guide promotes awareness of these issues, and accepted procedures and policies in the area of ethics and computing, using real companies, and incidents.

Preface
Acknowledgments for the First Edition
Acknowledgments for the Second Edition
Getting Started
Why Study Ethics and Computing?
A Fundamental Prerequisite
Ethical Theory and Professional Ethics
Guidance for Living Ethically
Case Study--Goodearl and Aldred v Hughes
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Urgency of Ethical Standards Intensifies in Computer Community (IEEE Computer, March 1990)
Internet Pornographer Draws Long Sentence (The Tampa Tribune February, 1999)
Critical-Thinking Skills
Introduction and Overview
Categories of Errors Commonly Made in Reasoning
Errors Arising from Ambiguity
Circular Arguments that Beg the Question
Use of Unwarranted Assumptions
Fallacies Involving Missing Evidence
Incorrectly Identified Causation
Premises Irrelevant to the Stated Conclusion
Irrelevant Appeals to Emotion/Authority/Loyalty
Diversion from the Main Point
Incorrect Deductive Inference
A Critical-Thinking Analysis: Workplace Privacy
A First Conclusion Based on Incomplete Information
A Conclusion Based on More Information
Roles and Responsibilities of Other Stakeholders
Examples of Critical-Thinking Lapses
Case Study--A BBS for Pirated Software
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Degrading Your Degree (IEEE Potentials, February 1993).
Feedback on Student Cheating (IEEE Potentials, October 1993)
UC--Berkeley Commencement Address (IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, February 1998)
Professional Codes of Ethics
Introduction
The AITP Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct
Code of Ethics
Standards of Conduct
The ACM Code of Ethics
The Software Engineering Code of Ethics
Software Engineering as a Licensed Profession
The IEEE Code of Ethics
Points of Contrast Between Codes
Problems with Codes of Ethics
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Connections to the Codes of Ethics
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
The Ethical Software Engineer (IEEE Institute, February 1999)
Why A State Professional Engineering Board Should Enter an Amicus Curiae Brief in a "Wrongful Discharge" Case
Viewpoint: The Assault on IEEE Ethics Support (IEEE Technology and Society, Spring 1999)
Using the New ACM Code of Ethics in Decision-Making (Communications of the ACM, February 1993)
"Cracking" and Computer Security
"Crackers" versus "Hackers"
Examples of "Cracker" Activities
Profiles of Cracker Personalities
Attitudes of and Toward Crackers
Enhancing Computer Security
Conclusion
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Reflections on Trusting Trust (Communications of the ACM, August 1984)
Antivirus Technology Offers New Cures (IEEE Computer, June 1997)
Collaring the Cybercrook: An Investigator's View (IEEE Spectrum, February 1998)
The Threat from the Net (IEEE Spectrum, August 1997)
Firewalls Fend Off Invasions from the Net (IEEE Spectrum, February 1998)
Is the US Prepared for Cyberwar? (IEEE Computer, July 1996)
CERT Incident Response and the Internet (Communications of the ACM, August 1994)
Faults and Failures--Phony Connections Gag Internet Servers (IEEE Spectrum, February 1997)
Melissa Virus Creates a New Type of Threat (IEEE Computer, June 1999)
Encryption, Law Enforcement, and Privacy
Introduction
Rise and Fall of the Data Encryption Standard
Some Basic Concepts
The Rise of DES
The Fall of DES
Evolution of Wiretaps and the "Right to Privacy"
Olmstead v. United States
Dissenting Opinion in Olmstead v. United States
Katz v. United States
Dissenting Opinion in Katz v. United States
1968 and 1994 Legislation Related to Wiretaps
Wiretap Statistics from the Annual Report
Development of Public Key Encryption
The RSA Algorithm
Government Policy Toward Encryption
"Escrowed" Encryption
"Key Recovery" Systems
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
Constitutionality of Export Restrictions
Current Social Conflicts and Ethical Issues
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Cryptography: The Importance of Not Being Different (IEEE Computer, March 1999)
Cryptography: Is Staying with the Herd Really Best? (IEEE Computer, March 1999)
Computers in Safety-Critical Systems
Introduction
Terminology Related to Safety-Critical Systems
Correspondence Between Models and Reality
Evaluating Software
Case Studies of Safety-Critical Failures
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Managing Murphy's Law: Engineering a Minimum-Risk System (IEEE Spectrum, June 1989)
How Engineers Lose Touch (American Heritage of Invention and Technology, Winter 1993)
Evaluation of Safety-Critical Software (Communications of the ACM, June 1990)
An Investigation of the Therac-25 Accidents (IEEE Computer, July 1993)
Letters to the Editor: Therac-25 Revisited (IEEE Computer, October 1993)
Design By Contract: The Lessons of Ariane (IEEE Computer, January 1997)
Ariane 5: Who Dunnit? (IEEE Software, May/June 1997)
Whistle Blowing
What is "Whistle Blowing"?
Stages of a Whistle-Blowing Incident
Stage One--Is There a Potential Whistle-Blowing Incident?
Stage Two--Seriousness Test
Stage Three--Reality Check
Stage Four--Becoming Aware of the Big Picture
Stage Five--Forcing Management Recognition of the Problem
Stage Six--Taking the Problem to Upper Management
Stage Seven--Going Outside the Organization
Stage Eight--Living with the Results
Whistle-blowing Incidents
Laws Protecting Whistle Blowers
Federal Law
State Laws
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusion and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
The Case of the Three Engineers vs. BART (IEEE Spectrum, October 1974)
Whistle-Blowing: Not Always a Losing Game (IEEE Spectrum, December 1990)
The Federal Whistle Blower Protection Act U.S. Government Document
The Florida Whistle Blower's Act Florida State Government Document
Intellectual-Property Issues
Protecting the Intangible
Patents
What is Eligible for a Patent?
How is a Patent Obtained?
Employee/Employer Patent Rights
Using a Patent
Infringement
Possible Changes to Watch For
Patent Searches Over the Internet
Summary
Copyrights
What is Eligible for a Copyright?
How Is a Copyright Obtained?
Using a Copyright
Infringement
Fair Use of Copyrighted Material
Changes to Watch For
Software Piracy
Plagiarism
Summary
Trade Secrets
What Is Eligible to Be a Trade Secret?
Using a Trade Secret
Infringement
Summary
Reverse Engineering
The "Look and Feel" Copyright Controversy
Where Does the Controversy Come From?
Summary
Software Patents
Where Does the Controversy Come From?
Arguments against Software Patents
Arguments for Software Patents
Summary
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Copyright and Work Made for Hire (IEEE Software, May 1994)
Reverse-Engineering Someone Else's Software: Is It Legal? (IEEE Software, January 1990)
Does the Patent Office Respect the Software Community? (IEEE Software, July/August 1999)
Trademarks and Potholes on the Superhighway (IEEE Software, September/October 1999)
Environmental and Health Concerns
Introduction
Manufacturing
Day-to-Day Use
Resource Conservation
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Cleaning Up (IEEE Spectrum, February 1993)
Recipe for Recycling (IEEE Spectrum, February 1993)
Safety Standards for CRT Visual Display Units (IEEE Spectrum, September 1992)
Research Council Reviews EMF (IEEE Spectrum, January 1997)
Running Out of Resources (IEEE Spectrum, July 1993)
A Second Look at Running Out of Resources (IEEE Spectrum, November 1993)
Striving for Fairness
Introduction
A Brief Historical Perspective
Underrepresentation
Among PhDs in Computing
What Do These Numbers Mean?
Summary
Dealing with Discrimination
Sexual Harassment
Racial Discrimination
Other Forms of Bias
Case Study
The Cast of Characters
The Sequence of Events
Conclusions and Questions
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Diversity in the High-Tech Workplace (IEEE Spectrum, June 1992)
Excerpt from Information for the Private Sector and State and Local Governments U.S. Government Document
Excerpt from Your Rights Under the Family and Medical Leave Act U.S. Government Document
Managing Your Career
Introduction
Perceived Societal Pressures
Addictive Behaviors
Corporate Politics
Worksheets
Additional Assignments
References
Quality and Innovation (IEEE Robotics and Automation Newsletter, Summer 1990)
Dos and Don'ts for Young EEs (IEEE Spectrum, October 1993)
Taking Charge of Your Promotion (IEEE Spectrum, October 1999)
The Drug-Free Workplace Act U.S. Government Document
Notes for the Instructor
Content Overview
Improving Students' Writing Skills
Common Problems Found in Technical Writing
Failing to Provide the "Big Picture" Early Enough
Failing to Provide or Specify the Foundation to Understand the Material
Using Acronyms and Technical Phrases Without Defining Them
Having too Few (or no) Examples
Having too Few (or no) Graphics
Including too Much Theory or Discussion with too Little Application
Failing to Present the Material Logically and Coherently
Writing in a Way that is Just Plain Boring to Read
Having No Substance
Habits and Tools to Support Good Writing
A Checklist for Proofreading and Revising Your Writing
References
Good Writing (Ethics and Computing: Living Responsibly in a Computerized World, 1996)
Codes of Ethics
Pointers to Additional Resources
Index
About the Editor

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