Critically Reading Theory Methods of Archaeology An Introductory Guide

ISBN-10: 0759123411

ISBN-13: 9780759123410

Edition: 2013

Authors: Guy Gibbon
List price: $27.95
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Book details

List price: $27.95
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/12/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 254
Size: 5.97" wide x 8.97" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.836

Introduction
Foundations
What Kind of Archaeology Is It?
Descriptions of the aim of archaeology
Two missteps: flatland modernism and skeptical postmodernism
The tasks of archaeology from a four quadrants perspective
Cultural resource management
What is the aim of archaeology?
What Kind of Investigation Is It?
The research cycle
Investigations within the research cycle
Additional considerations
What Are the Issue and the Claim?
What is the issue?
What is the claim?
Thinking critically about questions
What is the historical context of the issue and claim?
What Is the Argument?
Is there an argument? Why is it necessary to evaluate arguments?
Is it a good argument?
A checklist for evaluating arguments
Evaluating arguments fairly
What Are the Assumptions?
Types of assumptions and their function in arguments
Hints for locating assumptions
Research programs: an introduction
Is the Writing Clear?
Organization and style
Ambiguous words and phrases
Spotting ambiguities
Clarifying ambiguity
Vague claims and puzzling comparisons
Unfamiliar words and phrases
Are (Deceptive) Rhetorical Devices Used?
Euphemisms and dysphemisms
Persuasive comparisons, definitions, and explanations
Stereotypes, innuendo, and loaded questions
Weaselers, downplayers, and sarcasm
Hyperbole and proof surrogates
Is There a Fallacy in the Reasoning?
Errors in reasoning
Fallacies that violate the relevance criterion
Fallacies that violate the acceptability criterion
Fallacies that violate the sufficiency criterion
Fallacies that violate the rebuttal criterion
Are There Skeptical Postmodern Themes in the Argument?
Unmasking the foundations of science
The influence of postmodernism in scholarly research
Six responses to skeptical postmodernism
From Observations to Population Estimates
Are Facts Clearly Distinguished from Opinions and Other Claims?
How factual are factual claims?
The credibility of evidence
Recognizing factual claims in your reading
Major kinds of evidence
Intuition, authority, and testimonials
Personal observation, case studies, and analogies
Research studies as evidence
How Are the Observations Summarized?
What are data?
Tabular and pictorial methods of displaying data
Measures of position: the average
Measures of variability: the spread
Is There an Inductive Argument?
Deductive and inductive arguments
Inductive generalizations
Analogical arguments
Fallacies of inductive reasoning
Is There a Population Estimate from a Sample?
Statistical inference
Hypothesis testing
An example of formal hypothesis testing
Interpreting the Archaeological Record
Is There a Theory in My Reading?
Making sense of the archaeological record
Two views of the structure of a theory
The empiricism-social constructivism-scientific realism dispute
Which Research Program Is My Reading an Example Of?
Trait-centered archaeology
Systems-centered archaeology
Agency-centered archaeology
Integral archaeology
Must archaeologists work within a single research program?
Is an Explanation Offered?
Identifying explanations
Three targets of explanation in archaeology
Argument to the best explanation
Common errors in framing explanations
Using an analogy to explain
Is There a Causal Argument?
Causation among specific events
Common mistakes in causal reasoning
Causation in populations
Use of anecdotal evidence in causal reasoning
Evaluating Interpretations of the Archaeological Record
Are Deductively Valid Conclusions Drawn?
Deductive versus inductive strength of arguments
Some common patterns of deductive arguments
An example of deductive reasoning in archaeology
Are Concepts Given Archaeological Interpretations?
Preparing predictions for testing
The reliability and validity of indicators
Evaluating archaeological indicators
Are the Conclusions Reasonable?
Are the conclusions true?
Assessing the truth value of conclusions: a four-step approach
Common errors in drawing conclusions
Remember: The research cycle is a cycle
Coda: Is Critical Reading Worth the Effort?
Notes
Bibliography
Index
About the Author
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