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Analysis and Interpretation of Ethnographic Data A Mixed Methods Approach

ISBN-10: 0759122075
ISBN-13: 9780759122079
Edition: 2nd 2012
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/5/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 358
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.166
Language: English

List of Tables and Figures
List of Examples
Introduction
Why Are Analysis and Interpretation Necessary?
Why Are Analysis and Interpretation Necessary?
What Are Qualitative Data?
What Are Quantitative Data?
What Is Analysis?
What Is Interpretation? How Research Results Become Complete Ethnographies
Summary
Analysis in the Field
Recursivity in Ethnographic Research and Analysis
Initial Analysis in the Field
Inscription and Head Notes
Description, Scratch Notes, and Field Notes
Transcription, Recording, "Copying," and Scripting
Summary
Tidying Up, Cataloging, and Creating Data Inventories
Steps in Organizing and Cataloging Data
Steps in Tidying Up
Reasons for Tidying Up
Summary
Recursivity, Induction and Deduction: Moving between Levels of Abstraction
Recursivity Reviewed
Induction, Deduction, and Levels of Abstraction
Moving between Levels of Abstraction: From Concrete to Abstract and Back
Generating Explanations: From Local to Substantive Theories and Back
Summary
Ways to Begin Analysis
A Common Stereotype
Initiating an Analysis
General Coding and Specific Coding
Beginning with Formative Theories
The Recursive Process Again
How Results Emerge from Data
Emergence and Cognitive Processing: How Does It Begin?
Aggregating and Disaggregating Phenomena: Finding the Pieces and Explaining Why and How They Go Together
Defining the Item and Variable Level of Analysis
Some Analytic Strategies
Summary
Specific Coding and Initial Quantification
Beginning with General Levels and Moving to More Specific Levels of Aggregation and Disaggregation
What Is a Code?
What Do Qualitative Codes Look Like?
Other Characteristics of Codes
Where Do Codes Come From?
Precoded Data
Kinds of Codes or Categories
Limitations of Coding
Summary
Coding and Creating Qualitative and Quantitative Codebooks
Creating Initial Codes in Ethnographic Research
Creating Qualitative Codebooks
What Is a Codebook?
Creating Quantitative Codebooks
Team Ethnography and Coding in Teams: Deductive, Abductive or Recursive, and Inductive Coding
Using a Computer to Code Data
Summary
Managing Qualitative and Quantitative Data with Computers
How Computers Facilitate the Organization and Storage of Text Data
What Computers Cannot Do
Using Computers to Code, Manage, and Analyze Qualitative Text Data
Selecting Data Entry and Analysis Hardware and Software
Developing a Data Entry System
Entering Data
Constructing New Variables
Developing the Structure for a Quantitative Database
Data Management
Consolidating Quantitative Data (Data Reduction or "Crunching")
Summary
Analyzing Ethnographically Based Survey Data
Introduction: Why Do Ethnographers Use Surveys?
How Ethnographic Surveys Differ from Other Surveys
Logical Processes: Returning to the Original Research Questions and Formative Model
What Are Variables?
Steps in Describing Ethnographic Survey Data
Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Resolving Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Results
Summary
Creating Preliminary Results: Putting Parts Together
Creating More Complex Data Patterns and Explanations
The Pattern Level of Analysis: Linking Related Groups of Items and Units Together and Identifying Related Explanatory Variables and Factors
How Do Patterns Emerge from Data?
Grouping Patterns within Domains to Create Structures and Substantive Theories
Summary
Fine-Tuning Results and Beginning the Write-Up
Strategies for Getting Started
Reexamine the Theoretical Framework
Review the Research Questions
Create Some Vignettes
Write Some History
Describe a Social Process
Create Summaries of Interview Data
Create Summaries of Test Score or Precoded Survey or Questionnaire Data
Create Collections of Quotations from Documents or Interviews
Create or Refine a Conceptual Framework and Draw a Graphic Picture of It
Use Standard Narrative Form
Borrow a Narrative Form from the People Being Studied
Develop a Metaphor
Describe the Functions or Organizational Structure of a Group
Write Up the Critical Events in Chronological Order
Make a List of the Most Important Empirical Facts
Create a Display, or, When in Doubt, Draw a Picture!
Summary
Creating Interpretations
Introduction: Strategies for Initiating Interpretation of Research Results
Brainstorm and Speculate with Research Partners
Review the Research Questions
Review the Formative Ethnographic Theory Used
Review the Relevant Theories
Repeat the Analytic Strategies That Produced Research Results
Present a Contrasted Insider and Outsider Perspective
Look for Program Relevance
Look for Policy Relevance
Evaluate the Project
Consider the Audience
Summary
References
Index
About the Authors and Artists

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