Measurement and Instrumentation Principles

ISBN-10: 0750650818

ISBN-13: 9780750650816

Edition: 3rd 2001 (Revised)

Authors: Alan S. Morris
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Description: This work aims to introduce undergraduate students to the measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments that are used for measuring physical variables.

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Book details

List price: $60.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 3/27/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Dr. Morris is senior lecturer in the Department of Automatic Control & Systems Engineering at the University of Sheffield. He has taught the undergraduate course in measurement and instrumentation for nearly 30 years, as well as undergraduate courses in robot technology, engineering design and laboratory skills, and graduate level courses in robot control, modeling and measurement for quality assurance. He is the author of eight books and more than 130 research papers in the fields of measurement and instrumentation and robot control.

Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgementsp. xx
Principles of Measurementp. 1
Introduction to Measurementp. 3
Measurement unitsp. 3
Measurement system applicationsp. 6
Elements of a measurement systemp. 8
Choosing appropriate measuring instrumentsp. 9
Instrument Types and Performance Characteristicsp. 12
Review of instrument typesp. 12
Active and passive instrumentsp. 12
Null-type and deflection-type instrumentsp. 13
Analogue and digital instrumentsp. 14
Indicating instruments and instruments with a signal outputp. 15
Smart and non-smart instrumentsp. 16
Static characteristics of instrumentsp. 16
Accuracy and inaccuracy (measurement uncertainty)p. 16
Precision/repeatability/reproducibilityp. 17
Tolerancep. 17
Range or spanp. 18
Linearityp. 19
Sensitivity of measurementp. 19
Thresholdp. 20
Resolutionp. 20
Sensitivity to disturbancep. 20
Hysteresis effectsp. 22
Dead spacep. 23
Dynamic characteristics of instrumentsp. 23
Zero order instrumentp. 25
First order instrumentp. 25
Second order instrumentp. 28
Necessity for calibrationp. 29
Self-test questionsp. 30
Errors During the Measurement Processp. 32
Introductionp. 32
Sources of systematic errorp. 33
System disturbance due to measurementp. 33
Errors due to environmental inputsp. 37
Wear in instrument componentsp. 38
Connecting leadsp. 38
Reduction of systematic errorsp. 39
Careful instrument designp. 39
Method of opposing inputsp. 39
High-gain feedbackp. 39
Calibrationp. 41
Manual correction of output readingp. 42
Intelligent instrumentsp. 42
Quantification of systematic errorsp. 42
Random errorsp. 42
Statistical analysis of measurements subject to random errorsp. 43
Graphical data analysis techniques--frequency distributionsp. 46
Aggregation of measurement system errorsp. 56
Combined effect of systematic and random errorsp. 56
Aggregation of errors from separate measurement system componentsp. 56
Total error when combining multiple measurementsp. 59
Self-test questionsp. 60
References and further readingp. 63
Calibration of Measuring Sensors and Instrumentsp. 64
Principles of calibrationp. 64
Control of calibration environmentp. 66
Calibration chain and traceabilityp. 67
Calibration recordsp. 71
References and further readingp. 72
Measurement Noise and Signal Processingp. 73
Sources of measurement noisep. 73
Inductive couplingp. 74
Capacitive (electrostatic) couplingp. 74
Noise due to multiple earthsp. 74
Noise in the form of voltage transientsp. 75
Thermoelectric potentialsp. 75
Shot noisep. 76
Electrochemical potentialsp. 76
Techniques for reducing measurement noisep. 76
Location and design of signal wiresp. 76
Earthingp. 77
Shieldingp. 77
Other techniquesp. 77
Introduction to signal processingp. 78
Analogue signal filteringp. 78
Passive analogue filtersp. 81
Active analogue filtersp. 85
Other analogue signal processing operationsp. 86
Signal amplificationp. 87
Signal attenuationp. 88
Differential amplificationp. 89
Signal linearizationp. 90
Bias (zero drift) removalp. 91
Signal integrationp. 92
Voltage follower (pre-amplifier)p. 92
Voltage comparatorp. 92
Phase-sensitive detectorp. 93
Lock-in amplifierp. 94
Signal additionp. 94
Signal multiplicationp. 95
Digital signal processingp. 95
Signal samplingp. 95
Sample and hold circuitp. 97
Analogue-to-digital convertersp. 97
Digital-to-analogue (D/A) conversionp. 99
Digital filteringp. 100
Autocorrelationp. 100
Other digital signal processing operationsp. 101
References and further readingp. 101
Electrical Indicating and Test Instrumentsp. 102
Digital metersp. 102
Voltage-to-time conversion digital voltmeterp. 103
Potentiometric digital voltmeterp. 103
Dual-slope integration digital voltmeterp. 103
Voltage-to-frequency conversion digital voltmeterp. 104
Digital multimeterp. 104
Analogue metersp. 104
Moving-coil metersp. 105
Moving-iron meterp. 106
Electrodynamic metersp. 107
Clamp-on metersp. 108
Analogue multimeterp. 108
Measuring high-frequency signalsp. 109
Thermocouple meterp. 110
Electronic analogue voltmetersp. 111
Calculation of meter outputs for non-standard waveformsp. 112
Cathode ray oscilloscopep. 114
Cathode ray tubep. 115
Channelp. 116
Single-ended inputp. 117
Differential inputp. 117
Timebase circuitp. 117
Vertical sensitivity controlp. 117
Display position controlp. 118
Digital storage oscilloscopesp. 118
References and further readingp. 118
Variable Conversion Elementsp. 119
Bridge circuitsp. 119
Null-type, d.c. bridge (Wheatstone bridge)p. 120
Deflection-type d.c. bridgep. 121
Error analysisp. 128
A.c. bridgesp. 130
Resistance measurementp. 134
D.c. bridge circuitp. 135
Voltmeter-ammeter methodp. 135
Resistance-substitution methodp. 135
Use of the digital voltmeter to measure resistancep. 136
The ohmmeterp. 136
Codes for resistor valuesp. 137
Inductance measurementp. 138
Capacitance measurementp. 138
Alphanumeric codes for capacitor valuesp. 139
Current measurementp. 140
Frequency measurementp. 141
Digital counter-timersp. 142
Phase-locked loopp. 142
Cathode ray oscilloscopep. 143
The Wien bridgep. 144
Phase measurementp. 145
Electronic counter-timerp. 145
X-Y plotterp. 145
Oscilloscopep. 147
Phase-sensitive detectorp. 147
Self-test questionsp. 147
References and further readingp. 150
Signal Transmissionp. 151
Electrical transmissionp. 151
Transmission as varying voltagesp. 151
Current loop transmissionp. 152
Transmission using an a.c. carrierp. 153
Pneumatic transmissionp. 154
Fibre-optic transmissionp. 155
Principles of fibre opticsp. 156
Transmission characteristicsp. 158
Multiplexing schemesp. 160
Optical wireless telemetryp. 160
Radio telemetry (radio wireless transmission)p. 161
Digital transmission protocolsp. 163
References and further readingp. 164
Digital Computation and Intelligent Devicesp. 165
Principles of digital computationp. 165
Elements of a computerp. 165
Computer operationp. 168
Interfacingp. 174
Practical considerations in adding computers to measurement systemsp. 176
Intelligent devicesp. 177
Intelligent instrumentsp. 177
Smart sensorsp. 179
Smart transmittersp. 180
Communication with intelligent devicesp. 183
Computation in intelligent devicesp. 184
Future trends in intelligent devicesp. 185
Self-test questionsp. 185
References and further readingp. 186
Instrumentation/Computer Networksp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Serial communication linesp. 188
Asynchronous transmissionp. 189
Parallel data busp. 190
Local area networks (LANs)p. 192
Star networksp. 193
Ring and bus networksp. 194
Gatewaysp. 195
HARTp. 195
Digital fieldbusesp. 196
Communication protocols for very large systemsp. 198
Protocol standardizationp. 198
Future development of networksp. 199
References and further readingp. 199
Display, Recording and Presentation of Measurement Datap. 200
Display of measurement signalsp. 200
Electronic output displaysp. 200
Computer monitor displaysp. 201
Recording of measurement datap. 202
Mechanical chart recordersp. 202
Ultra-violet recordersp. 208
Fibre-optic recorders (recording oscilloscopes)p. 209
Hybrid chart recordersp. 209
Magnetic tape recordersp. 209
Digital recordersp. 210
Storage oscilloscopesp. 211
Presentation of datap. 212
Tabular data presentationp. 212
Graphical presentation of datap. 213
Self-test questionsp. 222
References and further readingp. 223
Measurement Reliability and Safety Systemsp. 224
Reliabilityp. 224
Principles of reliabilityp. 224
Laws of reliability in complex systemsp. 228
Improving measurement system reliabilityp. 229
Software reliabilityp. 232
Safety systemsp. 236
Introduction to safety systemsp. 236
Operation of safety systemsp. 237
Design of a safety systemp. 238
Self-test questionsp. 241
References and further readingp. 242
Measurement Sensors and Instrumentsp. 245
Sensor Technologiesp. 247
Capacitive and resistive sensorsp. 247
Magnetic sensorsp. 247
Hall-effect sensorsp. 249
Piezoelectric transducersp. 250
Strain gaugesp. 251
Piezoresistive sensorsp. 252
Optical sensors (air path)p. 252
Optical sensors (fibre-optic)p. 253
Intrinsic sensorsp. 254
Extrinsic sensorsp. 258
Distributed sensorsp. 259
Ultrasonic transducersp. 259
Transmission speedp. 260
Direction of travel of ultrasound wavesp. 261
Directionality of ultrasound wavesp. 261
Relationship between wavelength, frequency and directionality of ultrasound wavesp. 262
Attenuation of ultrasound wavesp. 262
Ultrasound as a range sensorp. 263
Use of ultrasound in tracking 3D object motionp. 264
Effect of noise in ultrasonic measurement systemsp. 265
Exploiting Doppler shift in ultrasound transmissionp. 265
Ultrasonic imagingp. 267
Nuclear sensorsp. 267
Microsensorsp. 268
References and further readingp. 270
Temperature Measurementp. 271
Principles of temperature measurementp. 271
Thermoelectric effect sensors (thermocouples)p. 272
Thermocouple tablesp. 276
Non-zero reference junction temperaturep. 277
Thermocouple typesp. 279
Thermocouple protectionp. 280
Thermocouple manufacturep. 281
The thermopilep. 282
Digital thermometerp. 282
The continuous thermocouplep. 282
Varying resistance devicesp. 283
Resistance thermometers (resistance temperature devices)p. 284
Thermistorsp. 285
Semiconductor devicesp. 286
Radiation thermometersp. 287
Optical pyrometersp. 289
Radiation pyrometersp. 290
Thermography (thermal imaging)p. 293
Thermal expansion methodsp. 294
Liquid-in-glass thermometersp. 295
Bimetallic thermometerp. 296
Pressure thermometersp. 296
Quartz thermometersp. 297
Fibre-optic temperature sensorsp. 297
Acoustic thermometersp. 298
Colour indicatorsp. 299
Change of state of materialsp. 299
Intelligent temperature-measuring instrumentsp. 300
Choice between temperature transducersp. 300
Self-test questionsp. 302
References and further readingp. 303
Pressure Measurementp. 304
Diaphragmsp. 305
Capacitive pressure sensorp. 306
Fibre-optic pressure sensorsp. 306
Bellowsp. 307
Bourdon tubep. 308
Manometersp. 310
Resonant-wire devicesp. 311
Dead-weight gaugep. 312
Special measurement devices for low pressuresp. 312
High-pressure measurement (greater than 7000 bar)p. 315
Intelligent pressure transducersp. 316
Selection of pressure sensorsp. 316
Flow Measurementp. 319
Mass flow ratep. 319
Conveyor-based methodsp. 319
Coriolis flowmeterp. 320
Thermal mass flow measurementp. 320
Joint measurement of volume flow rate and fluid densityp. 321
Volume flow ratep. 321
Differential pressure (obstruction-type) metersp. 322
Variable area flowmeters (Rotameters)p. 327
Positive displacement flowmetersp. 328
Turbine metersp. 329
Electromagnetic flowmetersp. 330
Vortex-shedding flowmetersp. 332
Ultrasonic flowmetersp. 332
Other types of flowmeter for measuring volume flow ratep. 336
Intelligent flowmetersp. 338
Choice between flowmeters for particular applicationsp. 338
References and further readingp. 339
Level Measurementp. 340
Dipsticksp. 340
Float systemsp. 340
Pressure-measuring devices (hydrostatic systems)p. 341
Capacitive devicesp. 343
Ultrasonic level gaugep. 344
Radar (microwave) methodsp. 346
Radiation methodsp. 346
Other techniquesp. 348
Vibrating level sensorp. 348
Hot-wire elements/carbon resistor elementsp. 348
Laser methodsp. 349
Fibre-optic level sensorsp. 349
Thermographyp. 349
Intelligent level-measuring instrumentsp. 351
Choice between different level sensorsp. 351
References and further readingp. 351
Mass, Force and Torque Measurementp. 352
Mass (weight) measurementp. 352
Electronic load cell (electronic balance)p. 352
Pneumatic/hydraulic load cellsp. 354
Intelligent load cellsp. 355
Mass-balance (weighing) instrumentsp. 356
Spring balancep. 359
Force measurementp. 359
Use of accelerometersp. 360
Vibrating wire sensorp. 360
Torque measurementp. 361
Reaction forces in shaft bearingsp. 361
Prony brakep. 361
Measurement of induced strainp. 362
Optical torque measurementp. 364
Translational Motion Transducersp. 365
Displacementp. 365
The resistive potentiometerp. 365
Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)p. 368
Variable capacitance transducersp. 370
Variable inductance transducersp. 371
Strain gaugesp. 371
Piezoelectric transducersp. 373
Nozzle flapperp. 373
Other methods of measuring small displacementsp. 374
Measurement of large displacements (range sensors)p. 378
Proximity sensorsp. 381
Selection of translational measurement transducersp. 382
Velocityp. 382
Differentiation of displacement measurementsp. 382
Integration of the output of an accelerometerp. 383
Conversion to rotational velocityp. 383
Accelerationp. 383
Selection of accelerometersp. 385
Vibrationp. 386
Nature of vibrationp. 386
Vibration measurementp. 386
Shockp. 388
Rotational Motion Transducersp. 390
Rotational displacementp. 390
Circular and helical potentiometersp. 390
Rotational differential transformerp. 391
Incremental shaft encodersp. 392
Coded-disc shaft encodersp. 394
The resolverp. 398
The synchrop. 399
The induction potentiometerp. 402
The rotary inductosynp. 402
Gyroscopesp. 402
Choice between rotational displacement transducersp. 406
Rotational velocityp. 407
Digital tachometersp. 407
Stroboscopic methodsp. 410
Analogue tachometersp. 411
Mechanical flyballp. 413
The rate gyroscopep. 415
Fibre-optic gyroscopep. 416
Differentiation of angular displacement measurementsp. 417
Integration of the output from an accelerometerp. 417
Choice between rotational velocity transducersp. 417
Measurement of rotational accelerationp. 417
References and further readingp. 418
Summary of Other Measurementsp. 419
Dimension measurementp. 419
Rules and tapesp. 419
Callipersp. 421
Micrometersp. 422
Gauge blocks (slip gauges) and length barsp. 423
Height and depth measurementp. 425
Angle measurementp. 426
Flatness measurementp. 428
Volume measurementp. 428
Viscosity measurementp. 429
Capillary and tube viscometersp. 430
Falling body viscometerp. 431
Rotational viscometersp. 431
Moisture measurementp. 432
Industrial moisture measurement techniquesp. 432
Laboratory techniques for moisture measurementp. 434
Humidity measurementp. 435
Sound measurementp. 436
pH measurementp. 437
The glass electrodep. 438
Other methods of pH measurementp. 439
Gas sensing and analysisp. 439
Catalytic (calorimetric) sensorsp. 440
Paper tape sensorsp. 441
Liquid electrolyte electrochemical cellsp. 441
Solid-state electrochemical cells (zirconia sensor)p. 442
Catalytic gate FETsp. 442
Semiconductor (metal oxide) sensorsp. 442
Organic sensorsp. 442
Piezoelectric devicesp. 443
Infra-red absorptionp. 443
Mass spectrometersp. 443
Gas chromatographyp. 443
References and further readingp. 444
Imperial--metric--SI conversion tablesp. 445
Thevenin's theoremp. 452
Thermocouple tablesp. 458
Solutions to self-test questionsp. 464
Indexp. 469
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.
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