How Children Develop

ISBN-10: 0716795272
ISBN-13: 9780716795278
Edition: 2nd 2006
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Book details

List price: $152.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Worth Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/16/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 600
Size: 9.25" wide x 11.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.870
Language: English

Social Development, Arizona State University.

Preface
An Introduction to Child Development
Why Study Child Development?
Raising Children
Choosing Social Policies
Understanding Human Nature
Review
Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development
Early Philosophical Views of Children's Development
The Beginnings of Research on Children
Review
Enduring Themes in Child Development
Nature and Nurture: How Do Nature and Nurture Together Shape Development?
The Active Child: How Do Children Shape Their Own Development?
Continuity/Discontinuity: In What Ways Is Development Continuous, and in What Ways Is It Discontinuous?
Mechanisms of Developmental Change: How Does Change Occur?
The Sociocultural Context: How Does the Sociocultural Context Influence Development?
Individual Differences: How Do Children Become So Different from One Another?
Research and Children's Welfare: How Can Research Promote Children's Well-Being?
Review
Methods for Studying Child Development
The Scientific Method
Contexts for Gathering Data About Children
Correlation and Causation
Designs for Examining Development
Ethical Issues in Child-Development Research
Review
Chapter Summary
Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period
Prenatal Development
Conception
Developmental Processes
Early Development
An Illustrated Summary of Prenatal Development
Fetal Behavior
Fetal Experience
Fetal Learning
Hazards to Prenatal Development
Review
The Birth Experience
Diversity of Childbirth Practices
Review
The Newborn Infant
State of Arousal
Negative Outcomes at Birth
Review
Chapter Summary
Biology and Behavior
Nature and Nurture
Genetic and Environmental Forces
Behavior Genetics
Review
Brain Development
Structures of the Brain
Developmental Processes
The Importance of Experience
Brain Damage and Recovery
Review
The Body: Physical Growth and Development
Growth and Maturation
Nutritional Behavior
Review
Chapter Summary
Theories of Cognitive Development
Piaget's Theory
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years)
The Preoperational Stage (Ages 2 to 7)
The Concrete Operations Stage (Ages 7 to 12)
The Formal Operations Stage (Age 12 and Beyond)
Piaget's Legacy
Review
Information-Processing Theories
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Review
Core-Knowledge Theories
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Review
Sociocultural Theories
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Review
Chapter Summary
Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy
Perception
Vision
Auditory Perception
Taste and Smell
Touch
Intermodal Perception
Review
Motor Development
Reflexes
Motor Milestones
Current Views of Motor Development
The Expanding World of the Infant
Review
Learning
Habituation
Perceptual Learning
Statistical Learning
Classical Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning
Observational Learning
Review
Cognition
Object Knowledge
Physical Knowledge
Social Knowledge
Looking Ahead
Review
Chapter Summary
Development of Language and Symbol Use
Language Development
The Components of Language
What Is Required for Language?
The Process of Language Acquisition
Current Theoretical Issues in Language Development
Review
Nonlinguistic Symbols and Development
Using Symbols as Information
Drawing
Review
Chapter Summary
Conceptual Development
Understanding Who or What
Dividing Objects into Categories
Knowledge of Other People and Oneself
Knowledge of Living Things
Review
Understanding Where, When, Why, and How Many
Space
Time
Causality
Number
Review
Chapter Summary
Intelligence and Academic Achievement
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence as a Single Trait
Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities
Intelligence as Multiple Processes
A Proposed Resolution
Review
Measuring Intelligence
The Contents of Intelligence Tests
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Review
IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes
Review
Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence
Qualities of the Child
Influence of the Immediate Environment
Influence of Society
Review
Alternative Perspectives on Intelligence
Review
Acquisition of Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Mathematics
Reading
Writing
Mathematics
Review
Chapter Summary
Theories of Social Development
Psychoanalytic Theories
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Current Perspectives
Review
Learning Theories
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Watson's Behaviorism
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Social Learning Theory
Current Perspectives
Review
Theories of Social Cognition
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Selman's Stage Theory of Role Taking
Dodge's Information-Processing Theory of Social Problem Solving
Dweck's Theory of Self-Attributions and Achievement Motivation
Current Perspectives
Review
Ecological Theories of Development
View of Children's Nature
Central Developmental Issues
Ethological and Evolutionary Theories
The Bioecological Model
Current Perspectives
Review
Chapter Summary
Emotional Development
The Development of Emotions in Childhood
Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion
The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood
Review
Regulation of Emotion
The Development of Emotional Regulation
The Relation of Emotional Regulation to Social Competence and Adjustment
Review
Individual Differences in Emotion and Its Regulation
Temperament
Review
Children's Emotional Development in the Family
Quality of the Child's Relationships with Parents
Parental Socialization of Children's Emotional Responding
Review
Culture and Children's Emotional Development
Review
Children's Understanding of Emotion
Identifying the Emotions of Others
Understanding the Causes of Emotion
Children's Understanding of Real and False Emotions
Understanding Simultaneous and Ambivalent Emotions
Review
Chapter Summary
Attachment to Others and Development of Self
The Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship
Attachment Theory
Measurement of Attachment Security
Cultural Variations in Attachment
Factors Associated with the Security of Children's Attachment
Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effects?
Review
Conceptions of the Self
The Development of Conceptions of Self
Identity in Adolescence
Review
Ethnic Identity
Ethnic Identity in Childhood
Ethnic Identity in Adolescence
Review
Sexual Identity or Orientation
The Origins of Youths' Sexual Identity
Sexual Identity in Sexual-Minority Youth
Review
Self-Esteem
Sources of Self-Esteem
Self-Esteem in Minority Children
Culture and Self-Esteem
Review
Chapter Summary
The Family
The Nature and Functions of the Family
Functions of Families
Family Dynamics
Review
The Influence of Parental Socialization
Parenting Style and Practices
The Child as an Influence on Parenting
Socioeconomic Influences on Parenting
Review
Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings
Differences in Mothers' and Fathers' Interactions with Their Children
Sibling Relationships
Review
Changes in Families in the United States
Older Parents
Divorce
Stepparenting
Lesbian and Gay Parents
Review
Maternal Employment and Child Care
The Effects of Maternal Employment
The Effects of Child Care
Review
Chapter Summary
Peer Relationships
What Is Special About Peer Relationships?
Friendships
Early Peer Interactions and Friendships
Developmental Changes in Friendship
The Functions of Friendships
Effects of Friendships on Psychological Functioning and Behavior over Time
Children's Choice of Friends
Review
Peers in Groups
The Nature of Young Children's Groups
Cliques and Social Networks in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence
Cliques and Social Networks in Adolescence
Boys and Girls in Cliques and Crowds
Negative Influences of Cliques and Social Networks
Review
Status in the Peer Group
Measurement of Peer Status
Characteristics Associated with Sociometric Status
Stability of Sociometric Status
Developmental Trends in Predictors of Children's Sociometric Status
Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Factors Related to Peer Status
Peer Status as a Predictor of Risk
Review
The Role of Parents in Children's Peer Relationships
Relations Between Attachment and Competence with Peers
Quality of Ongoing Parent-Child Interactions and Peer Relationships
Parental Beliefs and Behaviors
Gatekeeping, Coaching, and Modeling by Parents
Family Stress and Children's Social Competence
Review
Chapter Summary
Moral Development
Moral Judgment
Piaget's Theory of Moral Judgment
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Judgment
Prosocial Moral Judgment
Domains of Social Judgment
Review
The Early Development of Conscience
Factors Affecting the Development of Conscience
Review
Prosocial Behavior
The Development of Prosocial Behavior
The Origins of Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior
Review
Antisocial Behavior
The Development of Aggression and Other Antisocial Behaviors
Consistency of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior
Characteristics of Aggressive-Antisocial Children and Adolescents
The Origins of Aggression
Biology and Socialization: Their Joint Influence on Children's Antisocial Behavior
Review
Chapter Summary
Gender Development
Development of Gender Knowledge and Gender-typed Behavior
Milestones in Gender Development
Review
Perspectives on Gender Development
Biological Perspectives
Gender Socialization
Review
Gender Comparisons
Physical Growth: Infancy Through Adolescence
Cognitive Abilities
Social Behavior
Gender Flexibility and Asymmetry
Catherine and Colin: What's in a Picture?
Review
Chapter Summary
Conclusions
Nature and Nurture: All Interactions. All the Time
Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth
Infants' Nature Elicits Nurture
Timing Matters
Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once
Everything Influences Everything
Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development
Self-Initiated Activity
Active Interpretation of Experience
Self-Regulation
Eliciting Reactions from Other People
Development Is Both Continuous and Discontinuous
Continuity/Discontinuity of Individual Differences
Continuity/Discontinuity of Overall Development: The Question of Stages
Mechanisms of Developmental Change
Biological Change Mechanisms
Behavioral Change Mechanisms
Cognitive Change Mechanisms
The Sociocultural Context Shapes Development
Growing Up in Societies with Different Values
Growing Up in Different Times and Places
Growing Up in Different Circumstances Within a Society
How Do Children Become So Different from One Another?
Breadth of Individual Differences at a Given Time
Stability over Time
Predicting Future Individual Differences on Other Dimensions
Determinants of Individual Differences
Child-Development Research Can Improve Children's Lives
Implications for Parenting
Implications for Education
Implications for Helping Children at Risk
Improving Social Policy
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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