Earth's Climate Past and Future

ISBN-10: 0716737418
ISBN-13: 9780716737414
Edition: 2001
List price: $105.99
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Book details

List price: $105.99
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: W. H. Freeman & Company
Publication date: 12/15/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 465
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

William F. Ruddiman is the author of "Earth's Climate: Past and Future", and has published many articles in "Scientific American", "Nature", and "Science", as well as various scientific journals.

Preface
Framework of Climate Science
Overview of Climate Science
Climate and Climate Change
Development of Climate Science
Overview of the Climate System
Tools of Climate Science: Temperature Scales
Earth's Climate System Today
Heating Earth
Heat Transfer in Earth's Atmosphere
Heat Transfer in Earth's Oceans
Ice on Earth
Earth's Biosphere
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Structure of Earth's Atmosphere
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Albedo/Temperature
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Water in the Climate System
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Water Vapor
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Coriolis Effect
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Vegetation-Climate Feedbacks
Climate Archives, Data, and Models
Climate Archives
Climate Data
Climate Models
Tectonic-Scale Climate Change
Co[subscript 2] and Long-Term Climate
Greenhouse Worlds
The Faint Young Sun Paradox
Carbon Exchanges between Rocks and the Atmosphere
Climate Factors That Control Chemical Weathering
Chemical Weathering: Earth's Thermostat?
Is Life the Ultimate Control on Earth's Thermostat?
Climate Debate: A Snowball Earth?
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: The Organic Carbon Subcycle
Plate Tectonics and Climate
Plate Tectonics
The Polar Position Hypothesis
Modeling Climate on the Supercontinent Pangaea
Tectonic Control of CO[subscript 2] Input: The BLAG Spreading Rate Hypothesis
Tectonic Control of CO[subscript 2] Removal: The Uplift Weathering Hypothesis
What Controls Chemical Weathering?
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Brief Glaciation 430 Myr Ago
Greenhouse Earth
What Explains Greenhouse Warmth 100 Myr Ago?
Sea Level Changes and Climate
Asteroid Impacts
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: The Effect of CO[subscript 2] on Climate
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Calculating Changes in Sea Level
Back into the Icehouse: The Last 55 Million Years
Global Climate Change Since 55 Myr Ago
Why Did Global Climate Cool over the Last 55 Myr?
Understanding and Predicting Tectonic Climate Change
Tools of Climate Science: Oxtygen Isotope Ratios ([delta superscript 18]O)
Climate Debate: The Timing of Uplift in Western North America
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Is [superscript 87]Sr/[superscript 86]Sr an Index of Chemical Weathering?
Orbital-Scale Climate Change
Astronomical Control of Solar Radiation
Earth's Orbit Today
Long-Term Changes in Earth's Orbit
Changes in Insolation Received on Earth
Looking for Orbital-Scale Changes in Climate Records
Tools of Climate Science: Cycles and Modulation
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Earth's Precession as a Sine Wave
Insolation Control of Monsoons
Monsoon Circulations
Evidence of Orbital-Scale Changes in Summer Monsoons
Refinements of the Orbital Monsoon Hypothesis
Monsoon Forcing Earlier in Earth's History
Insolation Control of Ice Sheets
What Controls the Size of Ice Sheets?
Modeling the Behavior of Ice Sheets
Northern Hemisphere Ice Sheet History
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Ice Volume Response to Insolation
Climate Debate: Antarctic Deglaciation 3 Myr Ago?
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Sea Level on Uplifting Islands
Orbital-Scale Changes in Carbon Dioxide and Methane
Ice Cores
Orbital-Scale Changes in Methane
Orbital-Scale Changes in CO[subscript 2]
Tools of Climate Science: Carbon Isotope Ratios ([delta superscript 13]C)
Climate Debate: Do Winds Fertilize the Glacial Ocean?
Orbital-Scale Interactions in the Climate System
Orbital-Scale Forcing and Response Revisited
Ice-Driven Climate Responses
CO[subscript 2] Level and Ice Volume: Which Drives Which?
The Mystery of the 100,000-Year Cycle
Deglacial and Millennial Climate Changes
The Last Glacial Maximum
The Glacial World: More Ice and Less Gas
Testing Model Simulations Against Biotic Data
Data-Model Comparisons of Glacial Maximum Climates
How Cold Were the Glacial Tropics?
Looking Deeper into Climate Science: Ventilating the Glacial Ocean
Climate During and Since the Last Deglaciation
Fire and Ice: A Shift in the Balance of Power
Climate Changes During and Since Deglaciation
Fading Memories of Melting Ice
Predicting Future Orbital-Scale Changes
Tools of Climate Science: Deglacial [superscript 14]C Dates Are Too Young
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Giant Deglacial Floods
Millennial Oscillations in Climate
Millennial Oscillations During Glaciations
Millennial Oscillations During the Last 8000 Years
Causes of Millennial-Scale Oscillations
Implications of Millennial Oscillations for Future Climate
Tools of Climate Science: [delta superscript 18]O Fluctuations in Ice Cores
Historical and Future Climate Changes
Historical Changes in Climate
The Little Ice Age: Local or Global?
Proxy Measures of Historical Climate
Historical and Instrumental Observations
Natural Causes of Historical Climate Changes
Tools of Climate Science: Analyzing Tree Rings
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: El Nino
Climate Debate: Satellites vs. Surface Temperatures
Humans and Climate Change
The Impact of Climate on Human Evolution
The Impact of Climate on Early Civilizations
Early Impacts of Humans on Climate
The Impacts of Humans on the Atmosphere: The Last 250 Years
Climate Debate: Impacts of Humans on CH[subscript 4] Levels for 5000 Years?
Climate in the Twentieth Century
The Impact of Natural Variations in Climate
Earth's Sensitivity to Greenhouse Gases
Causes of Global Warming in the Twentieth Century
The Greenhouse Debate: Proponents and Skeptics
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Direct Radiative Forcing
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Deep-Ocean Warming in the Twentieth Century?
Climate Change in the Next 100 to 1000 Years
Natural Variations in Climate
Future Human Impacts on Climate
Future Climate Change Caused by Increased CO[subscript 2]
Monitoring Greenhouse Warming: The Next Few Decades
The Impacts of Future Increases in Greenhouse Gases on Humans
Climate Interactions and Feedbacks: Will Frozen Methane Melt?
Glossary
Index

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