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Interaction Ritual Chains

ISBN-10: 0691123896
ISBN-13: 9780691123899
Edition: 2004
Authors: Randall Collins
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Description: Sex, smoking, and social stratification are three very different social phenomena. And yet, argues sociologist Randall Collins, they and much else in our social lives are driven by a common force: interaction rituals.Interaction Ritual Chainsis a  More...

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Book details

List price: $39.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 7/25/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Sex, smoking, and social stratification are three very different social phenomena. And yet, argues sociologist Randall Collins, they and much else in our social lives are driven by a common force: interaction rituals.Interaction Ritual Chainsis a major work of sociological theory that attempts to develop a "radical microsociology." It proposes that successful rituals create symbols of group membership and pump up individuals with emotional energy, while failed rituals drain emotional energy. Each person flows from situation to situation, drawn to those interactions where their cultural capital gives them the best emotional energy payoff. Thinking, too, can be explained by the internalization of conversations within the flow of situations; individual selves are thoroughly and continually social, constructed from the outside in. The first half ofInteraction Ritual Chainsis based on the classic analyses of Durkheim, Mead, and Goffman and draws on micro-sociological research on conversation, bodily rhythms, emotions, and intellectual creativity. The second half discusses how such activities as sex, smoking, and social stratification are shaped by interaction ritual chains. For example, the book addresses the emotional and symbolic nature of sexual exchanges of all sorts--from hand-holding to masturbation to sexual relationships with prostitutes--while describing the interaction rituals they involve. This book will appeal not only to psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists, but to those in fields as diverse as human sexuality, religious studies, and literary theory.

List of Figures
Preface
Acknowledgments
Radical Microsociology
The Program of Interaction Ritual Theory
Situation rather than Individual as Starting Point
Conflicting Terminologies
Traditions of Ritual Analysis
Subcognitive Ritualism
Functionalist Ritualism
Goffman's Interaction Ritual
The Code-Seeking Program
The Cultural Turn
Classic Origins of IR Theory in Durkheim's Sociology of Religion
The Significance of Interaction Ritual for General Sociological Theory
The Mutual-Focus / Emotional-Entrainment Model
Ritual Ingredients, Processes, and Outcomes
Formal Rituals and Natural Rituals
Failed Rituals, Empty Rituals, Forced Rituals
Is Bodily Presence Necessary?
The Micro-Process of Collective Entrainment in Natural Rituals
Conversational Turn-Taking as Rhythmic Entrainment
Experimental and Micro-Observational Evidence on Rhythmic Coordination and Emotional Entrainment
Joint Attention as Key to Development of Shared Symbols
Solidarity Prolonged and Stored in Symbols
The Creation of Solidarity Symbols in 9/11
Rules for Unraveling Symbols
Emotional Energy and the Transient Emotions
Disruptive and Long-Term Emotions, or Dramatic Emotions and Emotional Energy
Interaction Ritual as Emotion Transformer
Stratified Interaction Rituals
Power Rituals
Status Rituals
Effects on Long-Term Emotions: Emotional Energy
Emotion Contest and Conflict Situations
Short-Term or Dramatic Emotions
Transformations from Short-Term Emotions into Long-Term EE
The Stratification of Emotional Energy
Measuring Emotional Energy and Its Antecedents
Interaction Markets and Material Markets
Problems of the Rational Cost-Benefit Model
The Rationality of Participating in Interaction Rituals
The Market for Ritual Solidarity
Reinvestment of Emotional Energy and Membership Symbols
Match-Ups of Symbols and Complementarity of Emotions
Emotional Energy as the Common Denominator of Rational Choice
Material Production Is Motivated by the Need for Resources for Producing IRs
Emotional Energy Is Generated by Work-Situation IRs
Material Markets Are Embedded in an Ongoing Flow of IRs Generating Social Capital
Altruism
When Are Individuals Most Materially Self-Interested?
The Bottom Line: EE-Seeking Constrained by Material Resources
Sociology of Emotions as the Solution to Rational Choice Anomalies
The Microsociology of Material Considerations
Situational Decisions without Conscious Calculation
Internalized Symbols and the Social Process of Thinking
Methods for Getting Inside, or Back Outside
Intellectual Networks and Creative Thinking
Non-Intellectual Thinking
Anticipated and Reverberated Talk
Thought Chains and Situational Chains
The Metaphor of Dialogue among Parts of the Self
Verbal Incantations
Speeds of Thought
Internal Ritual and Self-Solidarity
Applications
A Theory of Sexual Interaction
Sex as Individual Pleasure-Seeking
Sex as Interaction Ritual
Nongenital Sexual Pleasures as Symbolic Targets
Sexual Negotiation Scenes rather than Constant Sexual Essences
Prestige-Seeking and Public Eroticization
Situational Stratification
Macro- and Micro-Situational Class, Status, and Power
Economic Class as Zelizer Circuits
Status Group Boundaries and Categorical Identities
Categorical Deference and Situational Deference
D-Power and E-Power
Historical Change in Situational Stratification
An Imagery for Contemporary Interaction
Tobacco Ritual and Anti-Ritual: Substance Ingestion as a History of Social Boundaries
Inadequacies of the Health and Addiction Model
Tobacco Rituals: Relaxation / Withdrawal Rituals, Carousing Rituals, Elegance Rituals
Ritual Paraphernalia: Social Display and Solitary Cult
Failures and Successes of Anti-Tobacco Movements
Aesthetic Complaints and Struggle over Status Display Standards
Anti-Carousing Movements
The End of Enclave Exclusion: Respectable Women Join the Carousing Cult
The Health-Oriented Anti-Smoking Movement of the Late Twentieth Century
The Vulnerability of Situational Rituals and the Mobilization of Anti-Carousing Movements
Individualism and Inwardness as Social Products
The Social Production of Individuality
Seven Types of Introversion
Work-Obsessed Individuals
Socially Excluded Persons
Situational Introverts
Alienated Introverts
Solitary Cultists
Intellectual Introverts
Neurotic or Hyper-Reflexive Introverts
The Micro-History of Introversion
The Modern Cult of the Individual
Notes
References
Index

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