Frontiers of Justice Disability, Nationality, Species Membership

ISBN-10: 0674024109
ISBN-13: 9780674024106
Edition: 2006
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Description: Theories of social justice are necessarily abstract, reaching beyond the particular and the immediate to the general and the timeless. Yet such theories, addressing the world and its problems, must respond to the real and changing dilemmas of the  More...

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Book details

List price: $27.50
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Publication date: 4/30/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

Theories of social justice are necessarily abstract, reaching beyond the particular and the immediate to the general and the timeless. Yet such theories, addressing the world and its problems, must respond to the real and changing dilemmas of the day. A brilliant work of practical philosophy, Frontiers of Justice is dedicated to this proposition. Taking up three urgent problems of social justice neglected by current theories and thus harder to tackle in practical terms and everyday life, Martha Nussbaum seeks a theory of social justice that can guide us to a richer, more responsive approach to social cooperation. The idea of the social contract--especially as developed in the work of John Rawls--is one of the most powerful approaches to social justice in the Western tradition. But as Nussbaum demonstrates, even Rawls's theory, suggesting a contract for mutual advantage among approximate equals, cannot address questions of social justice posed by unequal parties. How, for instance, can we extend the equal rights of citizenship--education, health care, political rights and liberties--to those with physical and mental disabilities? How can we extend justice and dignified life conditions to all citizens of the world? And how, finally, can we bring our treatment of nonhuman animals into our notions of social justice? Exploring the limitations of the social contract in these three areas, Nussbaum devises an alternative theory based on the idea of "capabilities." She helps us to think more clearly about the purposes of political cooperation and the nature of political principles--and to look to a future of greater justice for all.

Martha C. Nussbaum is Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago.

Abbreviations
Introduction
Social Contracts and Three Unsolved Problems of Justice
The State of Nature
Three Unsolved Problems
Rawls and the Unsolved Problems
Free, Equal, and Independent
Grotius, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Kant
Three Forms of Contemporary Contractarianism
The Capabilities Approach
Capabilities and Contractarianism
In Search of Global Justice
Disabilities and the Social Contract
Needs for Care, Problems of Justice
Prudential and Moral Versions of the Contract; Public and Private
Rawls's Kantian Contractarianism: Primary Goods, Kantian Personhood, Rough Equality' Mutual Advantage
Postponing the Question of Disability
Kantian Personhood and Mental Impairment
Care and Disability: Kittay and Sen
Reconstructing Contractarianism?
Capabilities and Disabilities
The Capabilities Approach: A Noncontractarian Account of Care
The Bases of Social Cooperation
Dignity: Aristotelian, not Kantian
The Priority of the Good, the Role of Agreement
Why Capabilities?
Care and the Capabilities List
Capability or Functioning?
The Charge of Intuitionism
The Capabilities Approach and Rawls's Principles of Justice
Types and Levels of Dignity: The Species Norm
Public Policy: The Question of Guardianship
Public Policy: Education and Inclusion
Public Policy: The Work of Care
Liberalism and Human Capabilities
Mutual Advantage and Global Inequality: The Transnational Social Contract
A World of Inequalities
A Theory of Justice: The Two-Stage Contract Introduced
The Law of Peoples: The Two-Stage Contract Reaffirmed and Modified
Justification and Implementation
Assessing the Two-Stage Contract
The Global Contract: Beitz and Pogge
Prospects for an International Contractrarianism
Capabilities across National Boundaries
Social Cooperation: The Priority of Entidements
Why Capabilities?
Capabilities and Rights
Equality and Adequacy
Pluralism and Toleration
An International "Overlapping Consensus"?
Globalizing the Capabilities Approach: The Role of Institutions
Globalizing the Capabilities Approach: What Institutions?
Ten Principles for the Global Structure
Beyond "Compassion and Humanity": Justice for Nonhuman Animals
"Beings Entitled to Dignified Existence"
Kantian Social Contract Views: Indirect Duties, Duties of Compassion
Utilitarianism and Animal Flourishing
Types of Dignity, Types of Flourishing: Extending the Capabilities Approach
Methodology: Theory and Imagination
Species and Individual
Evaluating Animal Capabilities: No Nature Worship
Positive and Negative, Capability and Functioning
Equality and Adequacy
Death and Harm
An Overlapping Consensus?
Toward Basic Political Principles: The Capabilities List
The Ineliminability of Conflict
Toward a Truly Global Justice
The Moral Sentiments and the Capabilities Approach
Notes
References
Index

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