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Archaeology in Practice A Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses

ISBN-10: 0631235744
ISBN-13: 9780631235743
Edition: 2005
List price: $58.95
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Description: Written by an international team of specialists in material analyses, this work is an invaluable how-to manual of archaeological methods for all archaeology students, including numerous examples of applications of archaeological techniques.

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Book details

List price: $58.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/18/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 468
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Written by an international team of specialists in material analyses, this work is an invaluable how-to manual of archaeological methods for all archaeology students, including numerous examples of applications of archaeological techniques.

Chapter Abstracts
Preface and Acknowledgments
Notes on Contributors
Finding Sites
Introduction
Archaeological Prospection
Remote Sensing
Aerial photography
Remote imaging
High-altitude photography
Multispectral imaging
Thermal imaging
Airborne radar and LIDAR
Field Methods
Reconnaissance survey
Earthwork survey
Intrusive and semi-intrusive methods
Metal detection
Geochemical survey
Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Geophysical Methods
Electrical methods
Magnetic techniques
Topsoil magnetic susceptibility survey
Electromagnetic (EM) detection: ground-penetrating radar
Other geophysical methods
Underwater geophysical techniques
The Future Role and Development of Archaeological Prospecting
Acknowledgments
Resources
References
Consulting Stakeholders
Introduction
What and Who is an Archaeological Stakeholder?
A Brief History of Interaction between Archaeologists and Other Stakeholders
Learning to work with stakeholders: a personal journey
Learning to work with stakeholders: a discipline's journey
Differing Ways of Knowing the Past
True or valid?
How can there be different versions of the same past?
General Thoughts about How to Consult with Stakeholders
Specific Issues and Concerns
Differential power levels
Competing claims
Informed consent
When pasts conflict
Good Examples of Consultation with Stakeholders
Why Consult with Stakeholders? The Past as Cultural and Intellectual Property
Acknowledgments
References
Rock-Art
What is Rock-Art?
How is Rock-Art Made?
Classification
Technique
Form
Motif
Size
Character
How is Rock-Art Recorded?
Photography
Drawing and sketching
Tracing
Counting
How is Rock-Art Analyzed?
Informed methods
Formal (or structural) methods
Spatial distribution analysis
Information exchange and stylistic heterogeneity
Gendered behavior and art
Statistical techniques
Diachronic change
Dating art
Direct (or absolute) dating
Case Study: The Depiction of Species in Macropod Track Engravings
The zoological experiment
The results
The archaeological experiment
Interpretation of the Sturt's Meadows art
Conclusion
Resources
Further reading
References
Stratigraphy
Introduction
What is Stratigraphy?
Why do Archaeologists Study Stratification?
How do Different Layers Occur in Archaeological Sites?
Principles (or laws) of stratigraphy
Sources of disturbance
Excavation and Stratigraphy
Recording Stratification
The Harris Matrix: interpreting the spatial record
Creating Analytical Units
Case Study: Sos Hoyuk
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Resources
Further reading
References
Absolute Dating
Introduction
Chronometry
Sidereal methods
Isotopic methods
Radiogenic methods
Chemical and biological methods
Geomorphic methods
Limits on Chronometric Techniques
Maximum limits
Minimum limits
Limits on radiogenic techniques
Precision
From Age Estimates to Chronology
Temporal Resolution and Behavioral Variation
Fidelity and resolution
Time averaging
Multiple Scales of Time
Assessing Different Scales of Time at Bone Cave
Time Perspectivism in Practice, Stud Creek, Western New South Wales
Geomorphological history
Heat-retainer hearths
Stud Creek chronology
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Further reading
References
An Introduction to Stone Artifact Analysis
Introduction
An overview
Analyzing Stone Artifacts
Research design
Classifying an assemblage of stone artifacts
Choosing attributes to record and measure
Managing data
Measuring extent of reduction
Dealing with difficult assemblages
When do you need specialist archaeometric analyses?
Determining the type and flaking properties of stone
Sourcing stone artifacts
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References
Residues and Usewear
Introduction
Functional Analysis
Methodology, Experiments, and Procedures
Microscopes
Artifact Cleaning
Plant Residues Found on Artifacts
Starch
Raphides
Phytoliths
Resin, gums, waxes, and other exudates
Animal Residues Found on Artifacts
Hair and feathers
Blood
Bone
Shell
Usewear
Scarring or edge fracturing
Striations
Polish
Edge rounding
Beveling
Post-depositional damage
Hafting traces
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Resources
Further reading
References
Ceramics
Introduction
What is a "Ceramic"?
How is Pottery Made?
Clay preparation
Object formation
Pre-fire decoration
Firing
Post-fire treatment
Handling of Ceramics During and After Excavation
Careful excavating
Cleaning ceramics
Marking ceramics
Repairing ceramics
Initiating an Analytical Program for Ceramics
Prefatory issues before undertaking an analytical program
Quantitative analysis of ceramics
Sampling for laboratory analysis
How to begin analysis and select an appropriate analytical method
Areas of Ceramics Research and their Analytical Approaches
Technology studies
Usewear studies of ceramics
Dating of ceramics
Identifying the potters
Sourcing of ceramics
Resources
References
Animal Bones
Introduction
Project Planning, Sampling, and Recovery
Look Before You Dig - On-Site Observation
Bagging and Tagging
The Laboratory
Making the Record
Using the Record - Quantification
Conclusion
Resources
References
Plant Remains
Introduction: A Scene
Macroscopic Plant Remains
What can Plant Remains Contribute to Archaeology?
The relationship between people and plants
Plants and technology
Plants and regional subsistence
Archaeological theories and plants
What are the Problems (and Solutions) for Identifying and Determining the Origin of Macroscopic Plant Remains?
Technical problems in analyzing macro-plants, and their solutions
Archaeological sources
Ethnobotany and ethnoarchaeology
What Kinds of Methods can be Effectively Used to Retrieve and Analyze Plant Remains?
Basic plant classification
Archaeological retrieval and identification of seeds and fruits
Wood and charcoal
More problems in the analysis of plant remains
Case Study: Plant Remains from Kawambarai Cave, near Coonabarabran, Eastern Australia (by Wendy Beck and Dee Murphy)
The excavations
Recovery techniques
Quantification methods
Case study results
Case study conclusions
Conclusion
Further reading
References
Mollusks and Other Shells
Introduction
Background
The Creation of Middens
The Identification of Middens
Field Procedures
Dating Middens
Laboratory Procedures
Mechanical Sorting
Hand Sorting into Components
Shellfish Analysis
Identification of Shellfish and Other Species
Further Analysis
Shell Artifacts
Fish Remains
Interpretation
Acknowledgments
Resources
References
Sediments
Introduction
Granulometry
pH
Organic Matter
Phosphorus
Prehistoric Canals in the American Southwest
Kennewick Man, Washington State, USA
Conclusion
Resources
References
Artifacts of the Modern World
Introduction
Cataloging Artifacts
Domestic Ceramics
Clay Tobacco Pipes
Bottle Glass
Glass Tools
Beads and Buttons
Metal Containers
Firearms
Building Materials
Cemeteries and Gravestones
Artifact Analysis
Case Study: Kelly and Lucas's Whaling Station, Adventure Bay, Tasmania, Australia
Resources
Further reading
References
Historical Sources
Introduction
Archaeology and Historical Sources
Preparing for research
Identifying sources
Verify, evaluate, and discriminate
Case Study: The Use of Documents at Annapolis
Long-term history
Social time
Individual time
What are the Relationships between Documents and Archaeological Evidence?
Identification
Complement
Hypothesis formation and testing
Contradiction
Confronting myths
Creating context
Making an archaeological contribution to history
Resources
Further reading
References
Producing the Record
Introduction
First Decisions
What do I want to write about?
Who is my audience?
Structure
Introduction
Background
Methods
Results
Conclusions
The abstract
References
Acknowledgments
Writing
Language
Writing for Publication
Target carefully
Start afresh
Follow instructions
Think about illustrations and tables
Reference efficiently
Read the proofs carefully
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Getting things right
Further reading
References
Index

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