Introduction to Learning and Behavior

ISBN-10: 0534634516

ISBN-13: 9780534634513

Edition: 2nd 2005 (Revised)

List price: $125.95
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Description: Designed to apply learning theory and principles to the presentation of learning, this text shows how learning principles work in both animals and people. Throughout the book, the authors show how the study of learning helps solve practical problems, such as improving study skills, improving relationships, raising children, and effectively stopping smoking. This book is both solidly based in research and engaging for the student. To help ensure that students understand the materials, the authors strategically include multiple opportunities for review and self-testing within the text.

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Book details

List price: $125.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/19/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.870
Language: English

Dr. Russell Powell earned his Ph.D. in psychology under the late Frank Epling and David Pierce at the University of Alberta. Now serving as Chair of Psychology and Sociology at MacEwan University in Edmonton, Alberta, Dr. Powell was the first instructor to develop and offer university-level courses via computer-managed learning--a nontraditional, alternative delivery format. He has taught and published across a diverse range of areas, including social psychology, experimental psychology, operant conditioning, sleep paralysis nightmares and Freud criticism. Recently, Dr. Powell has become involved in the controversy over the nature and causes of dissociative identity disorder, coauthoring articles promoting a social learning perspective that have appeared in the CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY (Powell and Gee, 1999) and PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN (Lilienfeld et al., 1999).

Diane G. Symbaluk received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Alberta and is currently a faculty member in the Department of Social Sciences at MacEwan University. Her research background includes the investigation of self-control and impulsiveness in sex offenders, activity anorexia in male athletes, and the effect of social modeling and self efficacy on pain perception and tolerance. Dr. Symnaluk is author of various teaching and study aids, as well as of various articles, two of which appeared in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (Symbaluk et al., 1997), and Teaching of Psychology (Symbaluk and Cameron, 1998).

Preface
Introduction
Historical Background
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Association
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflex
The British Empiricists
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Consciousness
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behavior
Five Schools of Behaviorism
Watson's Methodological Behaviorism
Hull's Neobehaviorism
Tolman's Cognitive Behaviorism
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Skinner's Radical Behaviorism
The Life of B. F. Skinner
Research Methods
Basic Terms and Definitions
Independent and Dependent Variables
Functional Relationships
Stimulus and Response
Overt and Covert Behavior
Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiation
Contiguity and Contingency
Measurement of Behavior
Behavioral Definitions
Recording Methods
Research Designs
Descriptive Research
Experimental Research
Use of Animals in Behavioral Research
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning
Elicited Behaviors
Reflexes
Fixed Action Patterns
Simple Mechanisms of Learning
Habituation and Sensitization
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioning
Basic Procedure and Definitions
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioning
Temporal Arrangement of Stimuli
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities
Some Basic Conditioning Phenomena
Acquisition
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosis
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioning
Higher-Order Conditioning
Sensory Preconditioning
Three Limitations to Classical Conditioning
Overshadowing
Blocking
Latent Inhibition
Additional Phenomena
Temporal Conditioning
Occasion Setting
US Revaluation
Pseudoconditioning
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applications
Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioning
S-S versus S-R Learning
Stimulus-Substitution versus Preparatory-Response Theory
Compensatory-Response Model
Rescorla-Wagner Theory
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
Understanding Phobias
Treating Phobias
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviors
Medical Applications
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Operant Conditioning: Introduction
Historical Background
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Skinner's Learning by Consequences
Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior
Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishers
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimuli
Four Types of Contingencies
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctions
Immediate versus Delayed Reinforcement
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement
Shaping
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Operant Conditioning: Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous versus Intermittent Schedules
Four Basic Intermittent Schedules
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
Chained Schedules
Theories of Reinforcement
Drive Reduction Theory
The Premack Principle
Response Deprivation Hypothesis
Behavioral Bliss Point Approach
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Extinction and Stimulus Control
Extinction
Side Effects of Extinction
Resistance to Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
Stimulus Control
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
The Peak Shift Effect
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrast
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learning
Stimulus Control: Additional Applications
Put Learning into Action with Sniffy, the Virtual Rat
Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment
Escape and Avoidance
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobias
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Punishment
Types of Punishment
Problems with the Use of Punishment
Effective Use of Punishment
Theories of Punishment
Effects of Noncontingent Punishment
Learned Helplessness
Masserman's Experimental Neurosis
Choice, Matching, and Self-Control
Choice and Matching
Concurrent Schedules
The Matching Law
Deviations from Matching
Matching and Melioration
Self-Control
Skinner on Self-Control
Self-Control as a Temporal Issue
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control
Cognitive Factors in Self-Control
Biological Dispositions in Learning
Preparedness and Conditioning
Preparedness in Classical Conditioning
Preparedness in Operant Conditioning
Operant-Respondent Interactions
Instinctive Drift
Sign Tracking
Adjunctive Behavior
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
Adjunctive Behavior in Humans
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activity
Activity Anorexia
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
Comparisons with Anorexia Nervosa
Underlying Mechanisms
Clinical Implications
Observational Learning, Language, and Rule-Governed Behavior
Observational Learning
In Classical Conditioning
In Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning in Animals
Language
Can Animals "Talk"?
Sign Language Experiments
Artificial Language Experiments
Rule-Governed Behavior
Definitions and Characteristics
Some Disadvantages of Rule-Governed Behavior
Personal Rules in Self-Regulation
References
Index
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