Social and Personality Development

ISBN-10: 0534607004
ISBN-13: 9780534607005
Edition: 5th 2005 (Revised)
Authors: David R. Shaffer
List price: $168.95
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Description: The success of this best-selling text lies in the author's belief that a good text talks with, rather than at, its readers. Shaffer does an extraordinary job of anticipating students' interests, questions, and concerns while treating them as active  More...

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Book details

List price: $168.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/2/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 600
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.948
Language: English

The success of this best-selling text lies in the author's belief that a good text talks with, rather than at, its readers. Shaffer does an extraordinary job of anticipating students' interests, questions, and concerns while treating them as active participants in the process of learning about social and personality development. The Fifth edition of SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT features clearly written, current coverage of social and personality development that aids students in discovering the causes, processes, and complexities that underlie developmental change. Students learn why biological and environmental factors, contextual factors such as cross-cultural, familial, neighborhood, school, and peer-group influences cause change in children. Shaffer also explores the approaches that researchers use to test their theories and answer important questions about developing children and adolescents. This book's effective coverage of field research stands out from other texts not only for its accuracy and currency, but because Shaffer consistently juxtaposes classic research with the latest breakthroughs in a way that helps students appreciate how knowledge builds on earlier findings. This edition features a much stronger emphasis on cultural influences on development.

David R. Shaffer is a Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator of Psychology at the University of Georgia, where he focuses on the Social and Life-Span Developmental Psychology Programs. He has been teaching courses in human development to graduate and undergraduate students for nearly 30 years. His many research articles have concerned such topics as altruism, attitudes and persuasion, moral development, sex roles and social behavior, self-disclosure, and social psychology and the law. He has also served as associate editor for the "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin," and "Journal of Personality." In 1990 Dr. Shaffer received the University of Georgia's highest instructional honor�the Josiah Meigs award for Excellence in Instruction.

Preface
Introduction
The Universal Parenting Machine-A Thought Experiment
Social-Personality Development in Historical Perspective
Childhood in Premodern Times
Children as Subjects: The Baby Biographies
Emergence of a Psychology of Childhood
The Role of Theory in the Scientific Enterprise
Questions and Controversies About Human Development
Early Philosophical Perspectives on Human Nature
Nature Versus Nurture
Activity Versus Passivity
Continuity Versus Discontinuity
Is Development Universal or Particularistic?
Research Methods
The Scientific Method
Gathering Data: Basic Fact-Finding Strategies
Detecting Relationships: Correlational and Experimental Designs
The Correlational Design
The Experimental Design
The Natural (or Quasi-) Experiment
Designs for Studying Development
The Cross-Sectional Design
The Longitudinal Design
The Sequential Design
Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Postscript: On Becoming a Wise Consumer of Developmental Research
Summary
Classical Theories of Social and Personality Development
The Psychoanalytic Viewpoint
Freud's Psychosexual Theory
Contributions and Criticisms of Freud's Theory
Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Contributions and Criticisms of Erikson's Theory
Psychoanalytic Theory Today
The Behaviorist (or Social-Learning) Viewpoint
Watson's Behaviorism
Skinner's Operant-Learning Theory (Radical Behaviorism)
Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory
Social Learning as Reciprocal Determinism
Contributions and Criticism of the Social Learning Perspective
Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint
Piaget's View of Intelligence and Intellectual Growth
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Contributions and Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
Summary
Recent Perspectives on Social and Personality Development
Ethology: A Modern Evolutionary Perspective
Assumptions of Classical Ethology
Ethology and Human Development
Contributions and Criticisms of Evolutionary Viewpoints
Behavioral Genetics: Biological Bases for Individual Differences
Methods of Estimating Hereditary Influences
Estimating the Contributions of Genes and Environment
Hereditary Contributions to Personality and Mental Health
Heredity and Environment as Developmental Co-Conspirators
Contributions and Criticisms of the Behavioral Genetics Approach
Ecological Systems Theory: A Modern Environmentalist Perspective
Bronfenbrenner's Contexts for Development
Contributions and Criticisms of Ecological Systems Theory
Modern Cognitive Perspectives
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Contributions and Criticisms of the Sociocultural Perspective
The Social Information-Processing (or Atributional) Viewpoint
Contributions and Criticisms of the Social Information-Processing Viewpoint
Theories and World Views
Summary
Early Social and Emotional Development I: Emotional Growth and the Establishment of Intimate Relationships
An Overview of Emotional Development
Displaying Emotions: The Development and Regulation of Emotional Expressions
Recognizing and Interpreting Emotions
Emotions and Early Social Development
Temperament and Development
Hereditary and Environmental Influences on Temperament
Stability of Temperament
Early Temperamental Profiles and Later Development
What Are Emotional Attachments?
Early Emotional Bonding
Establishment of Interactional Synchrony
How Do Infants Become Attached?
The Growth of Primary Attachments
Theories of Attachment
Two Attachment-Related Fears of Infancy
Stranger Anxiety
Separation Anxiety
Why Do Infants Fear Strangers and Separations?
Reactions to the Loss of an Attachment Object
Summary
Early Social and Emotional Development II: Individual Differences and Their Implications for Future Development
Individual Differences in Attachment Quality
Assessing Attachment Security
Cultural Variations in Attachment
Factors That Influence Attachment Security
Quality of Caregiving
Infant Characteristics
Fathers as Attachment Objects
Fathers as Caregivers
Fathers' Influence on Early Intellectual Development
Fathers as Contributors to Early Social and Emotional Development
Attachment and Later Development
Long-Term Correlates of Secure and Insecure Attachments
Why Might Attachment Quality Forecast Later Outcomes?
Is Attachment History Destiny?
The Unattached Infant
Effects of Social Isolation in Dogs
Harlow's Studies of Socially Deprived Monkeys
Social Deprivation in Humans
Maternal Employment, Day Care, and Early Emotional Development
Benefits of High-Quality Alternative Care
The Importance of High-Quality Parenting
How Might We Assist Working Parents?
Summary
Development of the Self and Social Cognition
Development of the Self-Concept
The Emerging Self: Differentiation, Discrimination, and Self-Recognition
Who Am I?: Responses of Preschool Children
Children's Theory of Mind and Emergence of the Private Self
Conceptions of Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Self-Esteem: The Evaluative Component of Self
Origins and Development of Self-Esteem
Social Contributors to Self-Esteem
The Development of Self-Control
Emergence of Self-Control in Early Childhood
Delay of Gratification in Childhood and Adolescence
Who Am I to Be?: Forging an Identity
Developmental Trends in Identity Formation
How Painful Is Identity Formation?
Personal and Social Influences on Identity Formation
The Other Side of Social Cognition: Knowing About Others
Age Trends in Person Perception
Theories of Social-Cognitive Development
Summary
Achievement
The Concept of Achievement Motivation
The Motivational View of Achievement
A Behavioral View of Achievement
Early Reactions to One's Accomplishments: From Mastery to Self-Evaluation
Theories of Achievement Motivation and Achievement Behavior
Need Achievement Theories
Weiner's Attribution Theory
Dweck's Learned Helplessness Theory
Reflections on Theories of Achievement
Cultural and Subcultural Influences on Achievement
Individualistic Versus Collectivistic Perspectives on Achievement
Ethnic Variations in Achievement
Social Class Differences in Achievement
Home and Family Influences on Achievement
Quality of Attachments on Achievement
The Home Environment
Child-Rearing and Achievement
Configural Influences: Birth Order, Family Size, and Children's Achievement Behavior
On Sex Differences in Achievement and a Look Ahead
Summary
Sex Differences, Gender-Role Development, and Sexuality
Categorizing Males and Females: Gender-Role Standards
Some Facts and Fictions About Sex Differences
Actual Psychological Differences between the Sexes
Cultural Myths
Do Cultural Myths Contribute to Sex Differences in Ability (and Vocational Opportunity)?
Developmental Trends in Gender Typing
Development of the Gender Concept
Development of Gender-Role Stereotypes
Development of Gender-Typed Behavior
Subcultural Variations in Gender Typing
Theories of Gender Typing and Gender-Role Development
Money and Ehrhardt's Biosocial Theory
Evidence for Social-Labeling Influences
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
Social Learning Theory
Kohlberg's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
Gender Schema Theory
An Integrative Theory
Psychological Androgyny: A Prescription for the Future?
Do Androgynous People Really Exist?
Are There Advantages to Being Androgynous?
Applications: On Changing Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior
Sexuality and Sexual Behavior
Cultural Influences on Sexuality
Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors
Personal and Social Consequences of Adolescent Sexual Activity
Summary
Aggression and Antisocial Conduct
What Is Aggression?
Aggression as an Instinct
Behavioral Definitions of Aggression
Aggression as a Social Judgment
Theories of Aggression
Instinct Theories
Learning Theories
Dodge's Social Information-Processing Theory
Developmental Trends in Aggression
Early Conflict and the Origins of Aggression
Age-Related Changes in the Nature of Aggression
Is Aggression a Stable Attribute?
Sex Differences in Aggression
The Biological Viewpoint
The Social-Learning Viewpoint
The Interactive Viewpoint
Cultural and Subcultural Influences on Aggression
Family Influences on Aggression
Parental Child-Rearing Practices and Children's Aggression
Family Climate and Children's Aggression
Methods of Controlling Aggression and Antisocial Conduct
Catharsis: A Dubious Strategy
Creating "Nonaggressive" Environments
Eliminating the Payoffs for Aggression
Social-Cognitive Interventions
Summary
Altruism and Moral Development
What Are Altruism and Prosocial Behavior?
The Motivational (or Intentional) Definition of Altruism
A Behavioral Definition of Altruism
Theories of Altruism and Prosocial Development
Biological Theories: Are We Programmed for Prosocial Conduct?
Psychoanalytic Theory: Let Your Conscience (Superego) Be Your Guide
Social-Learning Theory: What's in It for Me?
Cognitive Theories of Altruism: Maturity Is the Medium
Developmental Trends in Altruism
Origins of Prosocial Behavior
Age-Related Changes in Altruism
Cognitive and Affective Contributors to Altruism
Role-Taking and Altruism
Prosocial Moral Reasoning
Empathy: An Important Affective Contributor to Altruism
Viewing Oneself as Altruistic
Cultural and Social Influences on Altruism
Cultural Influences
Reinforcing Altruism
Modeling Influences: Practicing and Preaching Altruism
Who Raises Altruistic Children?
What Is Morality?
How Developmentalists Look at Morality
Psychoanalytic Explanations of Moral Development
Freud's Theory of Oedipal Morality
Evaluating Freud's Theory and Newer Psychoanalytic Ideas About Morality
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: The Child as a Moral Philosopher
Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
An Evaluation of Piaget's Theory
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Support for Kohlberg's Theory
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Approach
Morality as a Product of Social Learning (and Social Information Processing)
How Consistent Are Moral Conduct and Moral Character?
Learning to Resist Temptation
Who Raises Children Who Are Morally Mature?
Summary
The Family
Functions of the Family
The Family as a Social System
Direct and Indirect Influences
Families Are Developing Systems
Families Are Embedded Systems
A Changing Family System in a Changing World
Parental Socialization During Childhood and Adolescence
Two Major Dimensions of Parenting
Four Patterns of Parenting
Social Class and Ethnic Variations in Child-Rearing
The Quest for Autonomy: Renegotiating the Parent/Child Relationship During Adolescence
The Influence of Siblings and Sibling Relationships
Changes in the Family System When a New Baby Arrives
Sibling Relationships over the Course of Childhood
Positive Contributions of Sibling Relationships
Characteristics of Only Children
Diversity in Family Life
Adoptive Families
Gay and Lesbian Families
The Impacts of Family Conflict and Divorce
Remarriage and Blended Families
Maternal Employment Revisited
When Parenting Breaks Down: The Problem of Child Abuse
Who Are the Abusers?
Who Is Abused?
Social-Situational Triggers: The Ecology of Child Abuse
Consequences of Abuse and Neglect
How Can We Solve the Problem?
Reflections on the Family
Summary
Extrafamilial Influences I: Television, Computers, and Schooling
The Early Window: Effects of Television on Children and Adolescents
Television and Children's Lifestyles
Development of Television Literacy
Effects of Televised Violence
Other Potentially Undesirable Effects of Television
Television As an Educational Tool
Should Television Be Used to Socialize Children?
Child Development in the Computer Age
Computers in the Classroom
Concerns About Computers
The School as a Socialization Agent
Does Schooling Promote Cognitive Development?
Determinants of Effective (and Ineffective) Schooling
The Teacher's Influence
Do Our Schools Meet the Needs of All Our Children?
How Well-Educated Are Our Children? Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Summary
Extrafamilial Influences II: Peers As Socialization Agents
Who Is a Peer and What Functions Do Peers Serve?
The Significance of Peer Interaction
Frequency of Peer Contacts
Peers as Promoters of Positive Developmental Outcomes
The Development of Peer Sociability
Peer Sociability in Infancy and Toddlerhood
Sociability During the Preschool Period
Peer Sociability in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Personal and Social Influences on Sociability
Peer Acceptance and Popularity
Measuring Children's Popularity with Peers
Why Are Children Accepted, Neglected, or Rejected By Peers?
On Improving the Social Skills of Rejected Children
Children and Their Friends
On the Development of Friendship
Social Interactions Among Friends and Acquaintances
Are There Distinct Advantages to Having Friends?
How Do Peers Exert Their Influence?
Peer Reinforcement and Modeling Influences
Peers as Critics and Agents of Persuasion
The Normative Function of Peer Groups
Peer Versus Adult Influences and the Question of Cross-Pressures
Summary
Epilogue
Major Themes in Human Social and Personality Development
Human Development Is an Holistic Enterprise
We Are Active Contributors to Our Own Development
There Is Both Continuity and Discontinuity in Development
There Is Much Plasticity in Human Development
The Nature-Nurture Distinction Is a False Dichotomy
Both Normative and Idiosyncratic Developments Are Important
We Develop in a Cultural and Historical Context
Development Is Best Viewed from Multiple Perspectives
Patterns of Parenting (and Adult Guidance) Clearly Matter
Many Social Forces Conspire to Shape Development
We've Come a Long Way, Baby ... but Have So Far to Go
References
Glossary
Name Index
Subject Index

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