Canela Kinship, Ritual and Sex in an Amazonian Tribe

ISBN-10: 0534174914
ISBN-13: 9780534174910
Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)
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Description: This text is a case study of one people, the Canela, which traces changes through time, a group uniquely held together by social and sexual bonds, and reveals the ethnographer's fieldwork practices. The authors present much of the material through  More...

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Book details

List price: $78.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 4/28/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 174
Size: 6.42" wide x 9.25" long x 0.31" tall
Weight: 0.770
Language: English

This text is a case study of one people, the Canela, which traces changes through time, a group uniquely held together by social and sexual bonds, and reveals the ethnographer's fieldwork practices. The authors present much of the material through short narratives and examples and Native points of view are expressed through their diaries. The reader is introduced to the Canela with an account of one of the author's arrivals in the tribe. This is followed by a brief history of the Canela that clarifies how the network of the kinship system holds the society together, and how the unusual sex practices create satisfying bonds among the people. The case study also shows how the practice of rituals affirms the group way of life for the individual. Many contemporary influences have caused the gradual demise of the Canela way of life. The case study concludes with an epilogue on the Canela's future adaptation to Brazilian life.

Bill Crocker graduated from Yale University in 1950 and was the first of George Spindler's students to earn his M.A. in anthropology from Stanford in 1953. He completed his Ph.D. at the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1962, having made the first of many visits to the Canela in 1957. In 1962, he joined the Smithsonian Institution as Associate Curator for South American Ethnology in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History. He continued his study of the Canela, making 20 trips to the field over the years, totaling 74 months of living with the tribe. Although Bill has missed teaching, he appreciates the opportunity for intensive and long-term research his career at the Smithsonian has provided. He is the author of numerous articles on the Canela, and in 1990 his comprehensive monograph, THE CANELA (EASTERN TIMBIRA), I: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC INTRODUCTION appeared as number 33 in the Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology series. Bill's work also contributed to the 1999 video on the Canela, MENDING WAYS, and to an extensive Canela website, launched in 2002, that is linked to the Smithsonian anthropology's web system. In 2001, Bill spent three months with the Canela, and he hopes to spend a few weeks every other year with them, continuing the study of long term cultural change.

Jean Galloway Thomas married Bill in 1987 and has since collaborated informally with him as an editor. She earned her B.A. in English from Stanford in 1960 and her M.A. in English from Georgetown University in 1971. She taught literature and writing in college preparatory schools for 20 years. Jean accompanied Bill on his 1991 trip to Brazil and lived with the Canela for three weeks. For this case study, and its revision, Jean used her teaching experience to orient the text for the college student. She helped organize the material and wrote some sections. Since Bill is the anthropologist, however, Jean has preserved his voice as the single narrative "I."

Foreword
Preface
Introduction to the Second Edition
A First Visit to the Canela
The Historical Context
Pacification and Adaptation
Timbira Nations: The Canela's Ancestors
Pioneers Decimate the Timbira Nations
Movement toward Eventual Peace
A Myth Is Created to Justify Inferior Status
Learning Their Place among the Civilizados
The Fox People Join the Canela
Executing a Witch Begins Social Disorganization
Ranchers Massacre the Kenkateye-Canela
Without Warfare, Discipline Starts Breaking Down
Culture Change in the 20th Century
Loss of Youths Having Sex with Opposite-Sex Elders
Loss of the Hazing-Shaming Ceremony of Youths
Impact of Outsiders on the Canela in the 1930s and 1940s
Further Shocks to Canela Culture in the 1950s
The Messianic Movement of 1963
Exile to the Forests of Sardinha
Adaptations of a Savannah People to the Forest
Outside Influences in the 1970s
Support from the Government
Rise in Literacy
Beginnings of Political Consciousness
The Drive for Education
The Web of Kinship
Consanguineal and Affinal Kinship
Kin, Affines, and "Spouses" around the Village Circle
My Canela Sister's Extended Household
Avoidance Relationships
Other Kinship Terms and Their Roles
Changes in the Balance between the Sexes
Bonding around the Village Circle of Houses
Bonding across the Village Circle of Houses
Life on Farms away from the Village
Joking Behavior between Aunts, Uncles, Nieces, and Nephews
Other Forms of "Kinship"
Informal Friendship
Formal Friendship
Personal Name-Set Transmission
Contributing Fathers
Keeping the Peace through Alternative Systems
Summary
Affirmation through Ritual
Life Cycle Rites
Ear-Piercing Rite: "Opening" Boys to Knowledge and Compliance
Death and Mourning as a Cluster of Rites
Festivals
The Nature of Festivals
Festivals Reinforce Roles and Values
The Festival of Masks
Food Distribution Enhanced
Belief Systems
The Other-World of Ghosts
Becoming a Shaman
Social Use of Shamanic Powers: Curing
Antisocial Use of Shamanic Powers: Witches' Spells
Tobacco-Induced Journeys
Power of Shamans' Pronouncements
Shamanism as the Ultimate Social Control
Pollution Control by Food and Sex Restrictions
Self-Empowerment through Maintaining "Restrictions"
Summary
"Ritual" as Contrasted with "Religion"
The Extramarital Sex System
Public and Private Aspects of the System
Public Extramarital Practices
Private Extramarital Practices
Learning about Sex
Children Are Exposed to Sex as a Joyful Activity
Socialization of Virginal Girls for Sex
Steps into Full Marriage
Stinginess, Jealousy, and Sharing
Socialization of Nonvirginal Girls for Sequential Sex
Winning the Social Acceptance Belt
The "Free" Adolescent Years
Childbirth and Its Limitations
Socialization of Boys for Sequential Sex
Conformity to Sexual Norms
Judicial Resolution of Sexual Disputes
The Trial of a Wayward Husband
Social Control and Balance of Power between the Sexes
Advantages of the System for Canela Society
The Demise of the Extramarital Sex System
Epilogue: The Future of the Canela
Mythology
Orthography
Comparison of Topics across Various Media
References
Index

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