Biological Basis of Cancer

ISBN-10: 0521606330
ISBN-13: 9780521606332
Edition: 2nd 2005 (Revised)
List price: $99.99
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Description: After introducing students to the basic biological principles of cancer, this new updated edition of an established textbook progresses to the human dimensions of the disease by considering actual cases of cancer. Other chapters discuss cancer  More...

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Book details

List price: $99.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 8/28/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 494
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.310
Language: English

After introducing students to the basic biological principles of cancer, this new updated edition of an established textbook progresses to the human dimensions of the disease by considering actual cases of cancer. Other chapters discuss cancer pathology, metastasis, carcinogenesis, genetics, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, epidemiology, and the biological basis of cancer treatment. Also included are an appendix with descriptions of common forms of cancer and a glossary. First Edition Pb (1998): 0-521-59695-5

School of Medicine Department of Pathology & Laboratory Science The University of Kansas Medical Center 3901 Rainbow Blvd. Kansas City, KS 66160-7

Preface
Introduction: Letters illustrating clinical aspects of cancer
Colon cancer
Breast cancer
Acute leukemia
Lung cancer
Kidney cancer
Squamous cell cancer
Testicular cancer
Stomach cancer
Melanoma
Neuroblastoma
Summary
The pathology of cancer
Introduction
Benign versus malignant tumors
The diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors
Tumor grading and staging
Classification and nomenclature
Metastasis
Tumor markers
How cancer kills
Organ failure
Obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, ducts, and hollow organs
Cachexia and infection
Spontaneous regression
Dormancy
Initiation
Latency
Progression to the autonomous state
Selection and cellular heterogeneity
A developmental concept of cancer
Apoptosis
Summary
Invasion and metastasis
Introduction
The metastatic cascade
Disruption of the basement membrane and lytic activity in the extracellular matrix
Cell detachment
Cell migration and motility
Invasion
Penetration of the vascular system
Cancer cells in the circulation
Arrest of circulating cancer cells (stasis)
Extravasation, growth of metastases, and metastasis of metastases
A multiplicity of genes are associated with metastasis
Soil and seed hypothesis of Paget
Box: Stephen Paget: No "ploughman" was he!
Is metastasis limited to malignant cells?
How do we know a metastasis to the liver is not a primary neoplasm of the liver
Why study metastasis?
Summary
Carcinogenesis
Introduction
What is a carcinogen?
Carcinogenesis as a multistage process
Chemical carcinogenesis
Organic compounds
Inorganic compounds and asbestos
Naturally occurring chemicals
Radiation
Ultraviolet radiation
Ionizing radiation
Endogenous ionizing radiation
Radon
Viral carcinogenesis
Endogenous carcinogenesis
Metabolism of xenobiotics
Host defenses
Inducibility of xenobiotic metabolism
Metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens
Inactivation of chemical carcinogens
Systemic distribution of chemical carcinogens
Mechanisms for carcinogen suppression/chemoprevention
Box: Elizabeth Cavert Miller with husband James
Modulation of carcinogenesis
Tumor promotion
Tumor progression
Alternative pathways for carcinogenesis?
Federal regulations
Summary
Genetics and heredity
Introduction
Chromosomes and cancer
Aneuploidy
Euploidy does not preclude genetic change
Cancers with chromosomal aberrations
Chromosome damage, mutation, and vulnerability to cancer
Hereditary cancers
Retinoblastoma
Wilms tumor
Hereditary conditions that increase cancer risk
Familial cancer syndromes
Colon cancer
Breast cancer
Prostate cancer
Microarray technology as a way of examining many genes simultaneously
Summary
Cancer-associated genes
Introduction
What is an oncogene?
Proto-oncogenes function in signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, or programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Genetic approaches to delineate proto-oncogene function
DNA microarray analysis - global gene expression or genomic profiling
Classification of proto-oncogenes/ oncogenes
Growth factors and their receptors
Nonreceptor tyrosine kinases
GTP-binding proteins: ras activation
Cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinases
Suppression of ras signaling
Nuclear signaling
Transcriptional activation
Regulation of DNA synthesis and the cell cycle
Other mechanisms for the regulation of signaling
Mechanisms of oncogene activation
Carcinogens and oncogene activation
Oncogene cooperation
Normal cells suppress tumor growth
Angiogenesis and tumor development
Tumor Suppressor genes
The Rb locus
p53 suppressor gene
Other tumor suppressors
Apoptosis and its role in growth regulation
Senescence
Where pathology meets molecular biology
Summary
Cancer in nonhuman organisms
Introduction
Plant growths
Invertebrate animals
Box: Yoshio Masui
Cancer in selected ectothermic (cold-blooded) vertebrates
Fish
Amphibia
Reptiles
Box: John C. Harshbarger
Cancer in selected warm-blooded vertebrates
Birds
Mammals
Summary - But try anyway!
Epidemiology
Introduction
Cancer in fossil humans: A brief digression concerning paleopathology
Epidemiology of selected human cancers
Lung cancer
Box: Alton Ochsner
Box: Richard Doll
Breast cancer
Skin cancer
Prostate cancer
Colorectal cancer
Cervical cancer: "The Beginning of the End"
Hodgkin lymphoma
Occupational cancers
AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma
What is next?
Lifestyle: Is there anything more important?
Introduction
Lung cancer is a preventable disease
Ultraviolet radiation and that "healthy tan"
How to minimize risk for skin cancer
The peculiar status of protection by sunscreens
Diet, nutrition, and cancer
Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer
Box: Denis Burkitt
Correlations between food substances and cancer prevalence: Significance
Dietary fat and obesity
Vitamins and cancer
Selenium and calcium
Non-nutrient organic compounds in food that may protect against cancer
American Cancer Society (2002) Guidelines on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Prevention
Exercise as it relates to cancer
A special note about breast cancer
Other lifestyle hazards
Summary
The stem cell basis of cancer treatment: concepts and clinical outcomes
Introduction
Therapies remaining at the conceptual level
Therapies being explored clinically: Differentiation therapy and cytostatic therapy
Box: Leland Hartwell, R. Timothy Hunt, and Sir Paul Nurse
Eradicating cancer cells - the aim of current cancer therapy
Absolute versus fractional cytoreduction
Box: Howard Skipper
The meaning of "curing cancer" depends on whom you ask
The biological basis of multimodality therapy as optimal cancer treatment
Biological factors that contribute to treatment success
Box: H. Rodney Withers
Biological factors that contribute to treatment failure
Treatment of intermediate-stage breast cancer as a clinical science success story
Summary
Oncology: The difficult task of eradicating caricatures of normal tissue renewal in the human patient
Surgical oncology
Radiation oncology
Chemotherapy
Directly cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs
Reactive chemicals as cytotoxic anticancer drugs
Selective cytotoxicity as a screening tool to discover more cytotoxic drugs
Indirect tumor cytotoxicity by nutrient deprivation ("antimetabolite therapy")
Box: George H. Hitchings, Jr., and Gertrude B. Elion
Box: Charles Brenton Huggins
Trophic factor therapy to treat hematologic side effects of chemotherapy
Therapy that exploits differentiation processes in malignancies
Pharmacological issues arising from tumor biology
Unknowns, the future, and the emergence of molecular oncology
Description of selected tumors
Adenocarcinoma of the breast
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate
Adenocarcinoma of the colon
Squamous cell carcinoma
Teratocarcinomas
Liver cell carcinoma
Lung cancer
Malignant melanoma
Retinoblastoma
Neuroblastoma
Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma)
Sarcomas
Lymphoma and leukemia
Glossary
References
Index

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