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Radiogenic Isotope Geology

ISBN-10: 0521530172
ISBN-13: 9780521530170
Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)
Authors: Alan P. Dickin
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Description: Modern isotope geochemistry is a rapidly expanding field that has a part to play in a broad range of earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar system processes to environmental geoscience. this new edition of a popular textbook is completely  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 3/31/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

Modern isotope geochemistry is a rapidly expanding field that has a part to play in a broad range of earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar system processes to environmental geoscience. this new edition of a popular textbook is completely updated and places more emphasis on the uses of radiogenic isotopes in environmental earth science. The author reviews the field of radiogenic isotope geology in a concise and visual manner to provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject and its wide variety of applications. For each technique, current ideas are presented in their historical context to allow the reader to understand the development of the theory. The latest ideas and methods, classic papers and case studies all come under scrutiny within this book. An accessible introduction for scientists from other disciplines and an important reference for students and researchers working in isotope geology.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Nucleosynthesis and nuclear decay
The chart of the nuclides
Nucleosynthesis
Stellar evolution
Stages in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements
Radioactive decay
Isobaric decay
Alpha- and heavy-particle decay
Nuclear fission and the Oklo natural reactor
The law of radioactive decay
Uniformitarianism
References
Mass spectrometry
Chemical separation
Rb-Sr
Sm-Nd
Lu-Hf
Lead
Ion sources
Thermal ionisation
Plasma-source mass spectrometry
Mass fractionation
Magnetic-sector mass spectrometry
Ion optics
Detectors
Data collection
Isotope dilution
Analysis technique
Double spiking
Applications of MC-ICP-MS to radiogenic isotopes
Hf-W
Lu-Hf
U-Th
Pb-Pb
U-Pb
Sm-Nd
Isochron regression-line fitting
Types of regression fit
Regression fitting with correlated errors
Errorchrons
Dealing with errorchrons
References
The Rb-Sr method
The Rb decay constant
Dating igneous rocks
Sr model ages
The isochron diagram
Erupted isochrons
Meteorite chronology
Dating metamorphic rocks
Open mineral systems
Blocking temperatures
Open whole-rock systems
Dating ore deposits
Dating sedimentary rocks
Shales
Glauconite
Seawater evolution
Measurement of the curve
Modelling the fluxes
The effects of Himalayan erosion
References
The Sm-Nd method
Sm-Nd isochrons
Meteorites
Low-grade meta-igneous rocks
High-grade metamorphic rocks
High-grade metamorphic minerals
Nd isotope evolution and model ages
Chondritic model ages
Depleted-mantle model ages
Model ages and crustal processes
Sedimentary systems
Meta-sedimentary systems
Meta-igneous systems
Partially melted systems
The crustal-growth problem
Crustal-accretion ages
Sediment-provenance ages
Archean depleted mantle
Early Archean crustal provinces
Nd in the oceans
Modern seawater Nd
Ancient seawater Nd
Tertiary seawater Nd
Quaternary seawater Nd
References
Lead isotopes
U-Pb isochrons
U-Pb dating of carbonates
U-Pb (zircon) dating
Lead-loss models
Upper intersection ages
Ion-microprobe analysis
Lead 207/206 ages
Inherited zircon
Alternative presentations of U-Pb data
Alternative U-Pb dating materials
Common (whole-rock) Pb-Pb dating
The geochron
Model (galena) ages
The Holmes-Houtermans model
Conformable leads
Open-system Pb evolution
Pb-Pb dating and crustal evolution
Archean crustal evolution
Paleo-isochrons and metamorphic disturbance
Environmental Pb
Anthropogenic Pb
Pb as an oceanographic tracer
Paleo-seawater Pb
References
Isotope geochemistry of oceanic volcanics
Isotopic tracing of mantle structure
Contamination and alteration
Disequilibrium melting
Mantle plumes
Plum-pudding mantle
Marble-cake mantle
The Nd-Sr isotope diagram
Box models for MORB sources
The mantle array and OIB sources
Mantle convection models
Pb isotope geochemistry
Pb-Pb isochrons and the lead paradox
The development of HIMU
The terrestrial Th/U ratio
The upper-mantle [mu] value re-examined
Mantle reservoirs in isotopic multispace
The mantle plane
The mantle tetrahedron
Identification of mantle components
HIMU
EMII
EMI
Kinematic models for mantle recycling
Depleted OIB sources
Island arcs and mantle evolution
Two-component mixing models
Three-component mixing models
References
Isotope geochemistry of continental rocks
Mantle xenoliths
Mantle metasomatism
Crustal contamination
Two-component mixing models
Melting in natural and experimental systems
Inversion modelling of magma suites
Lithospheric mantle contamination
Phenocrysts as records of magma evolution
Petrogenesis of continental magmas
Kimberlites, carbonatites and lamproites
Alkali basalts
Flood basalts
Precambrian granitoids
Phanerozoic batholiths
References
Osmium isotopes
Osmium analysis
The Re-Os and Pt-Os decay schemes
The Re decay constant
Meteorite isochrons
Dating ores and rocks
Os normalisation and the Pt-Os decay scheme
Mantle osmium
Bulk Silicate Earth
Lithospheric evolution
Primitive upper mantle
Enriched plumes
Osmium from the core
Asthenospheric mantle heterogeneity
Petrogenesis and ore genesis
The Bushveld Complex
The Stillwater Complex
The Sudbury Igneous Complex
Flood-basalt provinces
Seawater osmium
Seawater Os isotope evolution
Os fluxes and residence times
References
Lu-Hf and other lithophile isotope systems
Lu-Hf geochronology
The Lu decay constant and the CHUR composition
Dating metamorphism
Mantle Hf evolution
Hf zircon analysis
Archean sediments
Western Greenland
Mantle depletion and recycling
Sediment recycling
Seawater hafnium
The La-Ce and La-Ba systems
La-Ba geochronology
La-Ce geochronology
Ce isotope geochemistry
The K-Ca system
References
K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating
The K-Ar dating method
Analytical techniques
Inherited argon and the K-Ar isochron diagram
Argon loss
The [superscript 40]Ar-[superscript 39]Ar dating technique
[superscript 40]Ar-[superscript 39]Ar measurement
Irradiation corrections
Step heating
Argon-loss events
Excess argon
Dating paleomagnetism: a case study
[superscript 39]Ar recoil
Dating glauconite and clay minerals
Laser-probe dating
Method development
Applications of laser-probe dating
Timescale calibration
The magnetic-reversal timescale
The astronomical timescale
Intercalibration of decay constants
Thermochronometry
Arrhenius modelling
Complex diffusion models
K-feldspar thermochronometry
References
Rare-gas geochemistry
Helium
Mass spectrometry
Helium production in nature
Terrestrial primordial helium
The 'two-reservoir' model
Crustal helium
Helium and volatiles
Helium and interplanetary dust
Neon
Neon production
Solar neon in the earth
Neon and helium
Argon
Terrestrial primordial argon
Neon-argon
Argon-38
Xenon
Iodogenic xenon
Fissiogenic xenon
Solar xenon
References
U-series dating
Secular equilibrium and disequilibrium
Analytical methods
Mass spectrometry
Daughter-excess methods
[superscript 234]U dating of carbonates
[superscript 234]U dating of Fe-Mn crusts
[superscript 230]Th sediment dating
[superscript 230]Th-[superscript 232]Th
[superscript 230]Th sediment stratigraphy
[superscript 231]Pa-[superscript 230]Th
[superscript 210]Pb
Daughter-deficiency methods
[superscript 230]Th: theory
[superscript 230]Th: applications
[superscript 230]Th: dirty calcite
[superscript 231]Pa
U-series dating of open systems
[superscript 231]Pa-[superscript 230]Th
ESR-[superscript 230]Th
References
U-series geochemistry of igneous systems
Geochronology of volcanic rocks
The U-Th isochron diagram
Ra-Th isochron diagrams
U-series model age dating
Magma-chamber evolution
The Th isotope evolution diagram
Short-lived species in magma evolution
Mantle-melting models
Melting under ocean ridges
The effect of source convection
The effect of melting depth
The effect of source composition
Evidence from short-lived species
Evidence for mantle upwelling rates
Evidence from Th-Sr and Th-U mantle arrays
Evidence for crustal melting and contamination
Sources of continental magmas
Subduction-zone processes
U-Th evidence
Ra-Th evidence
References
Cosmogenic nuclides
Carbon-14
[superscript 14]C measurement by counting
The closed-system assumption
The initial-ratio assumption
Dendrochronology
Production and climatic effects
Radiocarbon in the oceans
The 'Ocean Conveyor Belt'
Accelerator mass spectrometry
Radiocarbon dating by AMS
Beryllium-10
[superscript 10]Be in the atmosphere
[superscript 10]Be in soil profiles
[superscript 10]Be in snow and ice
[superscript 10]Be in the oceans
Comparison of [superscript 10]Be with other tracers
[superscript 10]Be in magmatic systems
Chlorine-36
Iodine-129
In situ cosmogenic isotopes
Al-26 meteorite exposure ages
Al-Be terrestrial exposure ages
Chlorine-36 exposure ages
References
Extinct radionuclides
Production and decay
Extant actinides
Xenon isotopes
I-Xe
Pu-Xe
I-Xe chronology
Very-short-lived species
Al-Mg
Ca-K
Be-10
Short-lived species in planetary differentiation
Pd-Ag
Mn-Cr
Fe-Ni
Hf-W
[superscript 146]Sm-[superscript 142]Nd
Absent species
Cm-U
Conclusions
References
Fission-track dating
Track formation
Track etching
Counting techniques
The population method
The external-detector method
Re-etching and re-polishing
Detrital populations
Track annealing
Uplift and subsidence rates
Track-length measurements
Projected tracks
Confined tracks
Pressure effects
References
Index

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