Environmental Archaeology Principles and Practice

ISBN-10: 0521310776
ISBN-13: 9780521310772
Edition: 2000
List price: $77.00 Buy it from $45.84
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Description: This text is a guide to a variety of archaeological methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, and paleobotany.

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Book details

List price: $77.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 8/17/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 620
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.640
Language: English

This text is a guide to a variety of archaeological methods, ranging from techniques for measuring time with isotopes and magnetism to the sciences of climate reconstruction, geomorphology, sedimentology, soil science, and paleobotany.

List of figures
List of tables
Preface
Acknowledgments
Glossary
Introduction
Environmental Archaeology and Human Ecology
Organization of this volume
Interdependence
Elaborating culture
Goals of paleoenvironmental studies
Concepts for Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction in archaeology
Causation and systemic relationships
The emerging challenge to causal thinking
Mechanisms of Environmental Change
Geographic concepts
Climatic concepts
Environmental change in external factors
Environmental change in the five spheres
Human Responses to Environmental Change
Scales of environmental change
Human strategic options
Implications for environmental archaeology
Chronology
Introduction to Chronometry and Correlation
Measuring time
Calibration
Seasonal clocks and biological rhythms
Stratification and stratigraphy
Chronometry based on diagenetic changes
Summary
Measuring Time with Isotopes and Magnetism
Chronometry based on radioactive decay
Chronometry based on radiation damage
Chronometry based on cosmogenic nuclides
Chronometry based on the Earth's magnetic field
Summary
Case Study: The elusiveness of time
Climate
Climate: The Driving Forces
Scales in time and space
Factors operating at large (mega- and macro-) scales
Factors at macro- to micro-scales
Mechanisms involved in a meso-scale climatic reversal
Coda
Climate Reconstruction
Defining climate at large scales
Defining climate at meso- and micro-scales
Coda
Case Study: When is an environmental change a climatic change?
Geomorphology
Landforms
Introduction to geomorphology
Scales of landform analyses
Processes and concepts in landform analyses
Basic geomorphological methods
Landforms at mega- and macro-scales (]10[superscript 4]km[superscript 2]; 10[superscript 6-9] years)
Landforms at meso-scales ([10[superscript 4]km[superscript 2])
Landforms at micro-scale ([1km[superscript 2])
Landforms of Shores and Shallow Water
Coastal geomorphic concepts and processes
Methods of landform reconstruction
Coastal landforms with archaeological sites
Coda
Case Study: Landform reconstruction at Laetoli, Tanzania
Sediments and Soils
Basic Principles of Sedimentology and Soils Science
Introductory concepts
Study techniques in sedimentology
Pedogenesis and diagenesis
Soil science
Coda
Archaeological Matrices
Messages in the matrix
Terrestrial matrices
Wet and frozen site environments
Coda
Case Study: Did the Classical civilizations destroy their own agricultural lands?
Vegetation
Concepts and Methods in Paleobotany
Macrobotanical remains (Plantae and Fungi)
Microbotanical remains: pollen and spores
Microbotanical remains in mineral form
Chemical traces and proxy data
Coda
Vegetation in Paleoecology
Assembling the database
Scales of reconstruction
Communities in paleoecology
Landscapes with people
Plants in people
Discussion
Case Study: The paleoecology of the elm decline
Fauna
Faunal Paleoenvironments: Concepts and Methods
Animal Kingdom
Vertebrates
Invertebrates
Coda
Faunal Paleoecology
Reconstructing faunal environments
From assemblages to associations
Responses to habitat change: behavior and physiology
Coda
Humans Among Animals
Human effects in animal ecosystems
Animals as human foods
Paleopathology
Coda
Case Study: How do we read these bones? Seasons of use at Star Carr
Integration
Anthropocentric Paleoecology
The many variables of environmental studies
Implications for research practice
Example of successful integration and interpretation
A future for paleoenvironmental studies
References
Index

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