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Overview | |

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Statistics and Scientific Method | |

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Introduction | |

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Methods of Knowing | |

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Definitions | |

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Scientific Research and Statistics | |

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Random Sampling | |

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Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | |

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Using Computers in Statistics | |

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Statistics and the "Real World" | |

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What is the Truth? Data, Data, Where Are the Data? | |

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What is the Truth? Authorities Are Nice, But ... | |

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What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-1 | |

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What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-2 | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Basic Mathematical and Measurement Concepts | |

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Study Hints for the Student | |

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Mathematical Notation | |

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Summation | |

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Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales | |

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Measurement Scales in the Behavioral Sciences | |

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Continuous and Discrete Variables | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Frequency Distributions | |

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Introduction: Ungrouped Frequency Distributions | |

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Grouping Scores | |

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Percentiles | |

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Percentile Rank | |

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Graphing Frequency Distributions | |

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Exploratory Data Analysis | |

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What is the Truth? Stretch the Scale, Change the Tale | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Measures of Central Tendency and Variability | |

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Introduction | |

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Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Mode | |

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Measures of Variability: Range, Standard Deviation, and Variance | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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The Normal Curve and Standard Scores | |

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Introduction | |

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The Normal Curve | |

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Standard Scores (z Scores) | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Correlation | |

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Introduction | |

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Relationships | |

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Correlation | |

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What is the Truth? "Good Principal = Good Elementary School," or Does It? | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Linear Regression | |

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Introduction | |

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Prediction and Imperfect Relationships | |

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Constructing the Least-Squares Regression Line: Regression of Y on X | |

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Regression of X on Y | |

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Measuring Prediction Errors: The Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Considerations in Using Linear Regression for Prediction | |

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Relation Between Regression Constants and Pearson r | |

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Multiple Regression and Multiple Correlation | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Inferential Statistics | |

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Random Sampling and Probability | |

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Introduction | |

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Random Sampling | |

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Probability | |

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What is the Truth? "Not Guilty, I'm a Victim of Coincidence": Gutsy Plea or Truth? | |

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What is the Truth? Sperm Count Decline-Male or Sampling Inadequacy? | |

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What is the Truth? A Sample of a Sample | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Binomial Distribution | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition and Illustration of the Binomial Distribution | |

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Generating the Binomial Distribution from the Binomial Expansion | |

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Using the Binomial Table | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test | |

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Introduction | |

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An Experiment: Marijuana and the Treatment of AIDS Patients | |

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Type I and Type II Errors | |

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Alpha Level and the Decision Process | |

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Evaluating the Tail of the Distribution | |

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One- and Two-Tailed Probability Evaluations | |

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Size of Effect: Significant Versus Important | |

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What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-1 | |

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What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-2 | |

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What is the Truth? "No Product Is Better Than Our Product" | |

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What is the Truth? Anecdotal Reports Versus Systematic Research | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Power | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is Power? | |

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P[subscript null] and P[subscript real] | |

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Power Analysis of the AIDS Experiment | |

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Alpha-Beta and Reality | |

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Interpreting Nonsignificant Results | |

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Calculation of Power | |

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What is the Truth? Astrology and Science | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Sampling Distributions, Sampling Distribution of the Mean, the Normal Deviate (z) Test | |

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Introduction | |

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Sampling Distributions | |

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The Normal Deviate (z) Test | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Student's t Test for Single Samples | |

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Introduction | |

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Comparison of the z and t Tests | |

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The Sampling Distribution of t | |

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t and z Distributions Compared | |

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First Word Utterances Experiment Revisited | |

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Calculating t[subscript obt] from Original Scores | |

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Conditions Under Which the t Test Is Appropriate | |

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t Distribution: Confidence Intervals for the Population Mean | |

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Testing the Significance of Pearson r | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Student's t Test for Correlated and Independent Groups | |

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Introduction | |

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Student's t Test for Correlated Groups | |

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z and t Tests for Independent Groups | |

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z Test for Independent Groups | |

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Student's t Test for Independent Groups | |

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Power of the t Test | |

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Correlated Groups and Independent Groups Designs Compared | |

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Evaluating the Effect of the Independent Variable Using Confidence Intervals-Independent Groups Design | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Introduction to the Analysis of Variance | |

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Introduction: The F Distribution | |

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F Test and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | |

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Overview of the One-Way Analysis of Variance Technique | |

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Analyzing Data with the ANOVA Technique | |

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Logic Underlying the One-Way ANOVA | |

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The Relationship Between the Analysis of Variance and the t Test | |

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Assumptions Underlying the Analysis of Variance | |

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Size of Effect | |

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Power of the Analysis of Variance | |

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Multiple Comparisons | |

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What is the Truth? Much Ado About Almost Nothing | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Introduction to Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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Introduction to the Two-Way Analysis of Variance-Qualitative Presentation | |

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Quantitative Presentation of the Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

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Analyzing an Experiment with Two-Way ANOVA | |

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Multiple Comparisons | |

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Assumptions Underlying the Two-Way ANOVA | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Chi-Square and Other Nonparametric Tests | |

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Introduction: Distinction Between Parametric and Nonparametric Tests | |

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Chi-Square (X[superscript 2]) | |

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The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks Test | |

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The Mann-Whitney U Test | |

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The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

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What is the Truth? Statistics and Applied Social Research-Useful or "Abuseful"? | |

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Summary | |

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Important Terms | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Notes | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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WebTutor | |

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Review of Inferential Statistics | |

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Introduction | |

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Terms and Concepts | |

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Process of Hypothesis Testing | |

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Single Sample Designs | |

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Two-Condition Experiments: Correlated Groups Design | |

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Independent Groups Design: Two Groups | |

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Multigroup Experiments | |

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Two-Way Analysis of Variance, F Test | |

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Analyzing Nominal Data | |

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Choosing the Appropriate Test | |

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Questions and Problems | |

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Book Companion Website | |

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Appendixes | |

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Review of Prerequisite Mathematics | |

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Equations | |

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Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems | |

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Tables | |

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Glossary | |

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Index | |