Community-Based Corrections

ISBN-10: 049509482X
ISBN-13: 9780495094821
Edition: 7th 2008 (Revised)
Description: Up-to-date, comprehensive, and objective, COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS gives you essential information on the wide array of punishment and treatment programs that constitute alternatives to incarceration. You'll be introduced into a number of  More...
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List Price: $275.95
Edition: 7th
Copyright Year: 2008
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication Date: 2/21/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.980

Up-to-date, comprehensive, and objective, COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS gives you essential information on the wide array of punishment and treatment programs that constitute alternatives to incarceration. You'll be introduced into a number of programs--such as probation, parole, electronic monitoring, house arrest, day-treatment centers, boot camps, restitution, and fines?designed to meet the needs and levels of risk posed by the individual offender. Additionally, you will learn about the practical and legal matters involved in running these programs, and you'll gain insight into their historical, philosophical, social, and legal underpinnings.

About the Authors
Overview of Community Corrections
The State of Corrections Today: Why Community Corrections Is Important
The Correctional Dilemma
Change in Sentencing Laws
The Toughening of Juvenile Justice
The Paradox
Public Perceptions of Community Corrections
Correctional Budgets
The Role of Corrections at Three Major Decision Points
Pretrial and the Bail Decision
Sentencing Decision
Reentry Decision
How Community Corrections Fits Correctional Goals
Protection of the Public
Community Reintegration
Restorative or Community Justice
Public Shaming as Punishment
What You Should Know about Evaluations of Community-Based Corrections
What Works?
How Is Effectiveness Measured?
Other Outcome Measures for Evaluation
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Pretrial Release and Diversion
Pretrial Services
The Pretrial Release Decision
History of Pretrial Release
The Least Restrictive Option
Types of Bonds
Characteristics of Pretrial Releasees
Pretrial Supervision
Failure to Appear
Reducing Failure to Appear Rates
Candidates for Diversion
Drug Courts
Assumptions of Drug Courts
Gender and Drug Court Treatment Strategies
Evaluating Drug Courts
Mental Health Courts
Criticisms of Diversion Programs
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Sentencing and the Presentence Investigation Report
Factors That Affect Granting a Community Sentence
Eligibility for Community Corrections
Conditions of Probation Fixed by Statute
Availability and Quality of Intermediate Sanctions and Other Community-based Services
Other Factors
Sentencing Guidelines
Voluntary Sentencing Guidelines
Punishment Units
Sentencing Commissions
Conditions of Community Corrections
Standard Conditions
Special Conditions
Limitations of Special Conditions
Supervision Conditions Must Be Constitutional
First Amendment Rights
Searches and Seizures
The Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
The Presentence Investigation Report
Purposes of the PSI Report
Contents of the PSI Report
Offender-Based PSI Reports
Offense-Based PSI Reports
Preparing the PSI Report
The Initial Interview
Investigation and Verification
The Evaluative Summary
The Sentence Recommendation
Legal Issues Concerning the Presentence Report
Disclosure of the PSI Report
Inaccuracies in the PSI Report
Hearsay in the PSI Report
Does the Exclusionary Rule Apply?
Miranda Warnings and the PSI Interview
Right to a Lawyer during the PSI Interview
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Probation Conditions
History of Probation
Precursors to American Probation
Recognizance and Suspended Sentence
Two Kinds of Suspended Sentence
The Power to Suspend Sentence
Early Probation
The Role of Volunteers and the Settlement Movement
Development of Federal Probation
History of Juvenile Probation and Female Probation Officers
Early Probation Legislation in Other States
Changing Concepts of Supervision
The Casework Era: 1900-1970
Brokerage of Services Era: 1970-1980
Community Resource Management Team
Justice Model of Supervision: 1980-1995
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Probation Officer Issues
Organization of Probation Services
Arguments for and Against State or Executive Branch Administration
Community Corrections Acts
A Typology of Probation Officer Work Styles
Selection and Appointment of Probation Officers
Appointment System
Merit System
Combined System
Officer Qualifications, Training, and Salary
Education and Experience
Adult Preservice Training
Juvenile Preservice and Orientation Training
In-Service Training
Officer Salary
Firearms Policies for Probation and Parole Officers
Probation Officer Job Stress
Sources of Stress
Decreasing Stress: Types of Immunity
Absolute Immunity
Oualified Immunity
Private Probation
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Classification and Supervision in Probation and Parole
Neighborhood-Based Probation Supervision
The Surveillance Function in Supervision
Developing Prosocial Behaviors
Building on Assets and Strengths
Employment Services
Using Informal Social Controls
Classification: The First Step in Supervision
Actuarial Risk Assessment
Identifying Treatment Needs
Developing the Case Plan
Levels of Supervision
Caseload and Workload Standards
Specialized Caseloads
Supervising Offenders Who Are Mentally Ill
Supervising Offenders Who Have Abused Drugs and Alcohol
Gender-Responsive Strategies
Supervising Sex Offenders
Polygraph Tests
Global Positioning Systems
Interstate Compacts on Probation
New Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision
Revocation and the Interstate Compact
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Probation Modification and Termination
Modifying Probation Conditions
Early Termination of Probation
Modifying Conditions before the Revocation Decision
The Decision to Revoke
Types of Probation Violations
Law Violations
Technical Violations
Probation Absconders
Revocation Procedure
The Power to Arrest Probationers
Time on Probation or Parole Is Usually Not Credited if Revoked
Revocation Rights of Probationers and Parolees
Gagnon v. Scarpelli-The Facts
The Right to a Hearing
The Right to a Lawyer
Level of Proof and Evidence Required
Other Revocation Situations
Revocation for an Inability to Pay?
Juvenile Probation Revocation
Revocation After Probation Term Expires
Probation Effectiveness
Probation Recidivism Rates
Who Is More Likely to Succeed or Fail on Probation?
Probationers Compared with Parolees
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Intermediate Sanctions
Residential Intermediate Sanctions
Residential Community Corrections Facilities
Halfway Houses
History of Halfway Houses in the United States
Program Components
Levels System: A Form of Behavior Modification
Worker Perspectives and Role Orientation
Punishment and Treatment Role Orientations
Evaluations of RCCFs
Shock Incarceration
Correctional Boot Camps
Prison Boot Camps: The Case of New York State
Probation Boot Camps
Offender Perspectives
Criticisms of Boot Camps
Evaluations of Boot Camp Programs
Eight Site Study
Attitude and Behavoral Change
Reduction of Crowding and Costs
The Future of Shock Incarceration Programs
Other Types of Residential Community Corrections Facilities
Restitution Centers
Minnesota Restitution
Georgia Community Diversion Center
Therapeutic Communities
The Therapeutic Community Environment
Challenges of the TC
Types and Uses of Therapeutic Communities
Evaluations of Therapeutic Communities
Work Release and Work Ethic Camps
Work Ethic Camp
Combined Work Release and Therapeutic Community
Women Offenders Living with Their Children
John P. Craine House
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Nonresidential Intermediate Sanctions
Intensive Supervision Probation
ISP Caseloads
Attitudes toward ISP
Evaluations of ISP
Reduction of Prison Beds
Cost-Benefit Analyses
Treatment Participation
Summary of ISP Evaluations
House Arrest
Purposes of Home Detention
Criticisms of House Arrest
Effectiveness of House Arrest
House Arrest Versus Residential Community Corrections Facilities
Pretrial Detainees
Electronic Monitoring and Global Positioning Systems
History of Electronic Monitoring
Problems of Early EM Programs
Remote Location Monitoring
Officer Carries a Portable Receiver
Global Positioning Systems
Frequency of Use
Attitudes toward EM
Attitudes of EM Participants
Citizen Attitudes
Empirical Evaluations of Home-Based Electronic Monitoring
Long-Term Effects
Completion Rates
Gender Differences
Day Reporting Centers
Purposes of DRCs
Treatment-Oriented versus Supervision-Oriented DRCs
Evaluations of DRCs
Completion Rates
Rate of Rearrest
Predictors of DRC Failure
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Economic and Restorative Justice Reparations
Restorative Justice Principles
Forms of Restorative Justice
Victim-Offender Mediation
Reparation Boards
Family Group Conferencing
Circle Sentencing
Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Methods
Restitution in History
Losses Eligible for Compensation
Problems Associated with Restitution
Indigent Offenders
Determining the Restitution Amount
Collecting Restitution
Increasing Restitution Collection Rates
Effectiveness of Restitution
Victim and Public Views Toward Restitution
Community Service
History of Community Service
The English Model
Purpose of Community Service
Prevalence of Community Service
Effectiveness of Community Service
Prevalence of Fines
Revoking Probation for Fine Nonpayment
Day Fines
Evaluation of Day Fines
Fees and Costs
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Prisoner Reentry
The History of Parole: From Its Origin to the Present
The Origins of Parole
Manuel Montesinos
Georg Michael Obermaier
Alexander Maconochie
Transportation of English Prisoners to America
Transportation of English Prisoners to Australia
Marks System
Norfolk Island
Sir Walter Crofton and the Irish System
Development of Parole in the United States
Reward for Good Conduct
Postrelease Supervision
Zebulon R. Brockway and the Indeterminate Sentence
Reducing the Cost of Incarceration
The Medical Model: 1930-1960
Changing Public Opinion
A Philosophical Change
Origins of Modern Determinate Sentencing
The Justice Model
Changing of the Guard: From Discretionary Parole to Mandatory Release
Parole Today
Characteristics of Parolees
Functions of Parole
Prison Population Control
Medical Parole
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Preparing for Prisoner Reentry: Discretionary Parole and Mandatory Release
Issues in Reentry
The Prisoner's Family
The Victim's Role in Reentry
Reentry and the Community
Community-Based Reentry Initiatives
Reentry Courts
Types of Reentry
Eligibility for Parole
Time Sheets and Eligibility Dates
Prerelease Preparation within the Institution
The Parole Board
Term and Qualifications of the Parole Board
The Parole Hearing
Number of Parole Board Members
Recommendations and Attendees
Victim Participation in Parole Hearings
Models of Parole Release Decisions
The Surveillance Model
The Procedural Justice Model
The Risk Prediction Model
Due Process During Discretionary Parole Hearings
Menechino v. Oswald
Greenholtz v. Inmates of the Nebraska Penal and Correctional Complex
State-Created Liberty Interest
Extending the Time Intervals between Parole Hearings
Prisoners' Perceptions of Parole Selection
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Parole Conditions and Revocation
Prisoner Perspectives on Getting Out
California Study
Iowa Study
The Field Parole Officer
The Officer's Perspective
Conditions of Parole
Legal Issues in Parole Conditions
Limited Parolee Rights
First Amendment Rights
Fourth Amendment Rights
Violating Parole
Warrants and Citations
Due Process Rights under "Preparole"
Characteristics of Parole Violators
Parole Revocation Rate
Reasons for Revocation
Why Have Revocation Rates Increased?
Attitudes on Revocation
Parole Absconders
Why Do Parolees Leave?
Type I Absconders: Benign
Type II Absconders: Menace to Society
Locating and Apprehending Fugitives
Predicting Absconding Behavior
Parole Effectiveness
Recidivism Studies
Predicting Parole Outcomes
Gender Differences
Number of Prior Arrests
Supervision Versus No Supervision
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Special Issues in Community Corrections
Juvenile Justice, Probation, and Parole
Background and History
Mens Rea and Juveniles
Parens Patriae and Its Decline
Juvenile Justice and Adult Justice Systems Compared
Juvenile Courts
Created in the U.S.A.
Jurisdiction of Juvenile Courts
Based on Age
Based on Acts Committed
Differences from Adult Courts
Transfer from Juvenile Courts to Adult Courts
An Overview of the Juvenile Justice Process
Procedure before Adjudication
The Intake Stage
The Adjudication Stage
The Disposition Stage
Blended Sentences
Release from an Institution
In Re Gault: The Most Important Juvenile Justice Case
Juvenile Probation
Conditions of Probation
Judges Have Much Discretion
Types of Conditions
Juvenile Probation Officers
Intensive Supervision Probation
School-Based Probation
Fare v. Michael C.: An Important Case in Juvenile Probation Supervision
The Probation Record of Juveniles
Juvenile Parole (Or Aftercare)
Similarities with Probation
Differences from Probation
Parole Boards
Responsibilities of Juvenile Parole Officers
Evaluating Juvenile Parole Programs
Revocation of Juvenile Probation or Parole
No Standards for Revocation
Result of Revocation
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study Exercise
Collateral Consequences of Conviction, Pardon, and Restoration of Rights
Civil and Political Rights Defined
Background of Civil Disabilities
Civil Disabilities Today
Differences by State
Other Differences
Civil and Political Rights Affected By Conviction
Loss of Right to Vote
Loss of Right to Serve on a Jury
Loss of Credibility As a Witness 343 Loss of the Right to Hold Public Office
Employment-Related Rights
Public Employment
Private Employment
Right to an Occupational License
Loss of Capacity to be Bonded
Loss of Good Moral Character
Loss of Right to Own or Possess a Firearm
Loss of Welfare Benefits
Loss of Parental Rights
Problems with Civil Disability Laws
Other Effects of Conviction
Sex Offender Registration Laws
Sex Offender Notification Laws
Involuntary Commitment of Sexual Predators
Social Stigmatization
Definition and Purpose
The Power to Pardon
Kinds of Pardon
Procedure for Obtaining a Pardon
Legal Effects of a Pardon
Effects of a Pardon on Occupational Licensing
Restoration of Rights
Restoration upon Application
Automatic Restoration
Restoring the Right to Vote
Restoring Good Moral Character
Expungement of Criminal Records
Sealing of Criminal Records
Top Things You Should Know
Discussion Questions
Case Study
Table of Cases
Name Index
Subject Index

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