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Invisible Woman Gender, Crime, and Justice

ISBN-10: 0495090557
ISBN-13: 9780495090557
Edition: 3rd 2007 (Revised)
Authors: Joanne Belknap
List price: $146.95 Buy it from $1.80
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Description: The definitive text for the course, Belknap covers women and the criminal justice system with a focus on three major areas: (1) female offenders and their treatment by the criminal justice system; (2) female victims of crime; and (3) female  More...

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Book details

List price: $146.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/27/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.826
Language: English

The definitive text for the course, Belknap covers women and the criminal justice system with a focus on three major areas: (1) female offenders and their treatment by the criminal justice system; (2) female victims of crime; and (3) female employees of the agencies of the criminal justice system.

Nelda Shelton received her B.S. and M.B.E. degrees from the University of North Texas, Denton, Texas. She has taught full-time in the Business and Office Administration Departments of Tarrant County College, South Campus in Fort Worth, Texas. Ms. Shelton's teaching experience encompasses business math, business communications, office procedures, and introduction to accounting both in the classroom and distance learning via the Internet. She has worked part time for the U. S. Office of Personnel Management as a trainer and as an independent contractor. She has also served as a part-time instructor the Dallas County Community College District. Ms. Shelton has co-authored several successful texts in areas of business and office administration.A lifelong advocate for women's issues and a renowned scholar and researcher at the University of Colorado's department of Sociology, Joanne Belknap is both a powerful feminist and a talented analyst of the criminal justice system.

Introduction
The Emergence of Gender in Criminology
Invisibility of Women and Girls in Crime
Women and Girls as Offenders
Women and Girls as Victims
Women as Professionals in the Crime-Processing System
Blurring of Boundaries of Women's Experiences in Crime
Sex Versus Gender
What is Feminism?
What is Feminist Method?
Effect of Societal Images on Women in Crime
Diversity among Women
Summary
References
Female Offending
Critiquing Criminological Theories
The Traditional Positivist Studies
The Atavistic Female Offender
The Unadjusted Girl
Anatomy as Destiny
Behind the Mask
Legacy of the Positivist Theorists
Strain and Subcultural Theories
Strain Theory
Delinquency and Opportunity
General Strain Theory (GST)
Tests of (Traditional) Strain and General Strain Theories
Differential Association Theory (DAT)
Labeling Theory
Social Control Theory (SCT)
Social Bond Theory
Research on Social Control Theory
Power Control Theory (PCT)
Marxist, Radical, and Critical Theories
Women's Liberation/Emancipation Hypothesis (WLEH)
Biosocial and Evolutionary Psychological Theories
Feminist and Pro-Feminist Theories
Critical Race Feminism
Messerschmidt's Masculinities and Crime Theories
Cycle of Violence Theory
Life Course Theory (LCT)
Feminist Pathways Research
Summary
References
The Frequency and Nature of Female Offending
Measuring Crime and Making Gender Comparisons
The Importance of How Crime Rates are Measured and the Roles of Gender, Age, Race, Class, and Sexuality
Age and Juvenile Delinquency
Race/Ethnicity
Class/Socioeconomic Status
Sexuality
The Frequency and Context of Women's and Girls' Offending for Specific Crimes
Girl and Women Gangs
Theft
Robbery and Burglary
White-Collar Crime
Drug Use and Selling
General Aggression
Nonlethal and Lethal Child Abuse
Homicide
Summary
References
Processing Women and Girls in the System
Criminal Laws and Sex Discrimination
Sentencing Laws and Sex Discrimination
Three Hypotheses of Sex Discrimination in Crime Processing
Chivalry and Paternalism
Empirical Findings on Gender Differences in Crime Processing
Access to Chivalry: Discrimination among Women
Reforms in the Processing of Juveniles
The Presence of Gender Bias in Different Stages of Processing
Gender Differences in Crime Processing Based on the Type of Offense
Gender Stereotypes and Crime Processing
Summary
References
Incarcerating, Punishing, and "Treating" Offending Women and Girls
The History of Institutionalizing Female Offenders
Punishment
Reform
Sex-Segregated Custodial Prisons
Racist Segregation and Treatment in Girls' and Women's Institutions
Women's Prisons in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s
The Women's Prison Regime
Rates of Imprisonment and a Portrayal of Incarcerated Girls and Women
Girls' "Correctional" Institutions
Psychological Aspects of Women's Imprisonment
Parenthood: A Gender Difference Among Prisoners
Educational, Vocational, and Recreational Programs
Health Care Services
HIV/AIDS
Prenatal, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Health Care
Mental Health Problems and Care
Incarcerated Women and Girls with Disabilities
The Prison Subculture
Sexual Abuse of Women Prisoners
Co-Corrections
Women and the Death Penalty
Summary
References
Female Victims of Male Violence
The Image of the Female Victim
The Link Between Actual Victimizations and the Fear of Crime
Effect of Culture on Gender Roles
Gender Disparities in Power
Threats of Violence
Victim Blaming
The Victimization of Women and Girls of Color
The Victimization of Immigrant Women and Girls
The Victimization of Women and Girls with Disabilities
Summary
References
Sexual Victimization
Defining Sexual Victimization
Historical Issues in Defining Sexual Victimization
Statistics on Sexual Victimization
Who are the Victims?
Who are the Offenders?
The Victim-Offender Relationship
What Causes Sexual Abuse?
Rape Myths
The Role of Rape Myths and Other Causes of Sexual Victimization
Child Sexual Victimization (CSA)
Date Rape
Marital Rape
Sexual Harassment
Sexual Victimization and the Criminal Legal System
The Police
The Court Process, or Whose Trial Is It Anyway?
Summary
Notes
References
Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
Defining Intimate Partner Abuse and Stalking
Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA)
Stalking
The Historical Identification of IPA and Stalking as Social Problems
The Frequency of IPA and Stalking
Walker's Cycle Theory of Violence
Why Do (Some) Men (and Women) Abuse and Stalk?
Who are the Abusers and Stalkers?
Inhibitors to Leaving an Abusive Relationship
Economic Restrictions
Sociological Restrictions
Psychological Restrictions
The Constant Threat of Danger
IPA and Stalking and the Criminal Legal System
The Police
The Courts
When Women Kill Abusive Partners in Self-Defense
IPA and Health Professionals
Summary
Notes
References
Women Working in the Criminal Legal System
Women Working in Prisons and Jails
A Brief History on Sex Discrimination in Women's Work Outside the Home
Rates of Women Working in Prisons and Jails
Comparing Racial and Gender Workplace Discrimination
The Matron Role: Women's Breaking into Criminal Legal System Jobs through Sexist Stereotypical Positions
The Powerful Role of Legislative and Court Rulings on Women's Work in the Criminal Legal System
Post Title VII: Women as Tokens in the History of Women's Entry into Working as Prison and Jail Guards
Prisoner Privacy and Prison Safety: Roadblocks for Women Guards in Male Prisons
Gender Similarities and Differences in the lob Performances of Prison Workers
Classifications of Women Prison Workers
Resistance to Woman Workers
Summary
References
Women Working in Policing and Law Enforcement
The History of Women in Policing
Rates of Women in Policing
Why Do Women Want to be Police Officers?
Gender Differences in Job Performance
Classifications of Women Police Officers
Resistance to Women Police Officers
Struggles for the First Women on Patrol
Evaluations of Women Police by Their Supervisors, Their Supervisees, and Citizens
Gender and Stress
The Intersection of Racism and Sexual Identity with Sexism for Women Police
Some Steps Forward For Women, Some Steps Back
Summary
References
Women Working in the Courts
The History of Women on Juries
The History of Women's Access to Legal Education and Training
Women Attorneys
The Number of Women Attorneys
Classifications of Women Attorneys
The Experiences of Women Attorneys
The Gendered Implications of Marital and Family Status for Lawyers
Managing Sexist Images
The Gendered Placement of Lawyers
Treatment by Male Coworkers and Supervisors
The Gendered Nature of Income, "Making Partner," and Other Rewards for Lawyers
The Gendered Nature of Sanctions against Lawyers
Women Judges
Women's Entry into Judgeships
Characteristics of Women Judges and Their Experiences as Judges
Looking for Gender Differences in Judges' Decision Making
Women Law Professors
Summary
References
Conclusions
Effecting Change
New Theories
Changing the Treatment of Female Offenders
Changing Responses to Male Violence Against Women
Sexual Victimization
Intimate Partner Abuse
Changes for Women Working in the Criminal Legal System
Summary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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